US 1158959 A
Beschreibung (OCR-Text kann Fehler enthalten)
E. W. BEACH.
APPLICATION FILED JULY I6, 1912.
Patented Nov. 2, 1915.
4 SHEETS-SHEET 2| E. w. BEACH.
APPLICATION FILED lULY I6. I9I2.
Patented Nov. 2, 1915.`
I4 SHEETS-SHEET 3.
' E. W. BEACH.
CENTBIFUGM SEPARIII'OR.- APPLICATION FILED IuLY I6, I9I2.
Patented N 0V. 2y
4 SHEETS-SHEET 4.
EDWARD W. BEACH, 0F WINNETK, ILLINOIS. L
Specification of Letters Patent.
Patented Nov. 2, 1915.
Application inea July 1e, 1912. serial No. 709,716.
To all lfolto/m, 'it may com-ern.'
lie it .known that I, EnwAiin W. BEACH, a citizen of the United States, residing at Winnetka, in the'county of Cook and State of Illinois, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Centrifugal Separators, of which the following is a specification.
This invention relates to centrifugal separators adapted for the treatment of mixed solids and liquids, and has for its essential object to produce a construction, whereby a continuous separation 'and discharge is effected. l
The natural tendency ,of the heavier constituents, under the influence of lcentrifugal force, is to be forced toward and against the periphery of the separator bowl, and the primary object is to provide a liquid or cushion back for regulating the movement of the heavier constituents within the separator bowl as the separating process or operation is effected. l
Another object is to improve the construction, operation and utility-of the separator,
and the invention further consists in the features of construction and combination of pai-ts hereii'iafter described and claimed.
1n the drawings is shown a preferred form of device, wherein- Figure 1 is a vertical sectional elevationv taken through one form of bowl body; Fig. 2 a top or plan view looking down on the top or cap of the bowl; Fig. 3 a cross section taken through the separator bowl on line -3--3 of Fig. l; Fig. 4 a cross section taken through the discharge port on line 4.-1 of Fig. 1; Fig. an enlarged sectional detail taken through the liquid passage between the primary and secondary separator chambers; Fig. 6 a cross section taken through the liquid passage between the separator base andthe secondary chamber on line 6-6 of Fig. 1; Fig. 7 a cross section taken through the bowl base discharge pipe of Fig. 1 Fig. 8 a sectional detail showing the modilication of a discharge passage intermediate the wings; Fig. 9 a top or plan view looking down upon the spaced plates or disks within the separator bowl; Fig. 10 a cross section taken through said plates or disks on line 10-10 of Fig. 9; Fig. 11 a vertical sectional detail taken through the upper p0rtion of the separator bowl showing modified inlet constructions; Fig. 12 a cross section taken'online 12e-12 of Fig.-11; Fig. 13 a cross section taken on line 13--13 of Fig. 1.
through the base or lower portion of the Separator bowl; Fig. 14:' a detail, in plan, showing one form of -discharge openings in the base plate intermediate the primary and secondary separator bowl chambers; Fig. 15 a detail, in plan, showing a modified form of discharge opening, as compared with Fig. 14, in said base plate; and Fig. '16 a vertical sectional elevation, showing a slightly modified form of separator bowl construction, having inclined side walls. f
Referring toFig. l, this improved devicel is shown comprising a separator bowl or casing 17, mounted upon a spindle 18 which may hold the compartment plate in position by set-screws 19, and its upper threaded end may engage a lock nut 20 contacting the bowl to-p 21, or otherwise. As indicated, the upper portion of said spindle 18 has an elongated recess or passage 21 opening laterally into a primary separating zone 22 for per` mitting the ingredients to be separated to be fed downwardly tliereinto. The separator bowl may be of any desirable shape and configuration, and isv shown as having a somewhat contracted top portion 23 merging into an enlarged chamber portion 24 formed by inclined side walls 25 merging into straight side walls 26, and liquid feeding pipesv or openings 27 may be positioned adjacent or within said inclined side walls, and said pipes have their upper ends communicating with the inlet'passages 28 in the top of the bowl, and may'have their lower discharging ends 29 terminating at lany desired point within the bowl chamber, whereby a liquid back or cushion is maintained for regulating and feeding downwardly and carrying toward the bowl base the heavier solids or constituents in the material to be Separated.
'A plurality of split wings or hollow members 30 may be employed for conveying the admitted material to the separating zone of the primary separating chamber, and, as shown, said wings or members are mounted upon said spindle and seated against a spindle ring 31. One form of said split wing construction is shown in Figs. 3 and 8, for distributing the material to be separated within the primary separating chamber. A. hollow screw 32 is positioned toward the top of and through the chamber wall, in which the lighter separated ingredients will be ejected from the separator. This separator maybe operated either with or without diotherwise. rlhe base is shown having downwardly inclined walls 37, although itmay be differently formed, and a sleeve 38 is posi-l tioned loosely about the spindle 18 having an obliquely disposed flanged portion 39 upon which may bev carried adjustable spaced lscrapers 40, as shown in Fig. 13, for contacting and moving the heavier constituents centrally of the base of the bowl for discharge therefrom.
The flanged portion 39 may be of any suitable formation to act as a` carrier for the Scrapers 40 and should preferably be' provided with one or more openings to permit passage of liquid therethrough from one side thereof to the other.
Obviously, since a cushion or liquid back is provided for in the primary separating chamber, it follows that the amount of discharge from the said chamber into the bowl base is determined by the sizel of the openings 41V intermediate said chamber and base for regulating the travel of the solids therethrough. It is not intended to li-mit the construction to one having any particular form or character of discharge openings 41, and in Figs. 3, 14, and 15, several forms of openings are disclosed, said openings being preferably formed about the flanged base member 42 of the primary separating chamber. lIf desired,. a transverse wall 43 can be formed intermediate the base 34 and secondary separatingchamber 44, or may be dispensed with, since the device may be operative either way. However, the lower portion of the bowl in conjunction with the base forms, in effect, said secondary separating chamber 44 irrespective of the intermediate wall 43 which, when employed, has a passage 45 for enabling the liquid in the base of the bowl to travel thereinto, and a regulating screw 46 of any approved form may be used for adjustment of the vertical level of the lighter constituent, as in Fig. 6. This secondary separating chamber 44 has an upper discharge passage 47 in vertical alinement with outlets 32 and 45, and said passage 47 may be likewise controlled by an adjustable member 48, as in Fig. 5, for regulating the low and travel of the lighter liquids therelthrough. Thisfluid control is well illustrated in Fig. 1, wherein the passages 45 and 47 are shown in substantial vertical alineincassa Howe-ver, any other practical The solids or heavier constituents are 8O gravitated toward the sides of the bowl, andI the` liquid or cushion back prevents said solids or constituents from adhering to the bowl and carries the same downwardly chamber base, and the lighter liquids within the base are forced upwardly through the separating chamber. A base discharge outlet 49, preferably adjustable, is provided so through the discharge openings 41 into the 85 as to make said discharge outlet nearer to,
or farther from the center of motion, as may be desired, and for bringing the discharge outlet in vertical alinement with the central Y balance of columns in the respective mem-x bers. Moreover, this discharge `outlet may `95 be adjusted to establish a fixed or immovable liquid or cushion back throughout the period of operation, or to cause a continuous downward movement of said liquid or cushion back,'as desired. Furthermore, the 100 adjustment ofsaid liquid or cushion back through said discharge pipe 49 controls the size of the clearance in said openings 41', since by adjustment the opening may remain in fullsize or be reduced, as desired,
and the position of the discharge pipe determines the amount of infeed at 28. The liquid discharge pipe 49 may be of any .suitable construction, and one form thereof is side walls 52 and 53 extending substantially 115 its entire length, wherein liquid passages or pipes 54 may contact or be formed in the bowl walls, having their upper ends 55 com municating with inlet openings 56 lat or toward'the top of the bowl, and their outlet 12u or discharge opening 57 at or adjacent to the lower portion of the bowl, and having a cushion or liquid back for carrying the heavier particles and constituents downwardly through the discharge openings 58 125 from a primary separating chamber 59 into a secondary separating chamber 60. The bowl base may be provided with Scrapers, and an intermediate wall may be used or dispensed with depending upon the construction de- 130 wshown in Fig. 7, having an inner adjustsired, and dividing dividing wall 62 between the primary and secondary separating chambers, having an adjustablecontrolling member (53, or otherwisc, and said opening 61 is preferably in Vertical alinement with the discharge orifice toward the top of thel bowl, which may be provided with a hollow screw member (il, through which the lighter separated liquids are ejected during the separating operation. Of course, the formation of the split wings Aor members 30 in the upper bowl portion ma be varied to suit operating conditions. andY in Figs. 11 and 12 a slightly modified construction is shown, wherein the admitted ingredient to be separated passes downwardly,throu h the hollow spindle and passage 65`into 51e primary and auxiliary separating chambers, finally fiowing into and out through the chamber 66. Two of the split wings are opened and the other one closed. v
The operation is as follows: Liquid is inserted in the openings 28 in such quantity as to form a liquid or cushion back in the base. of the bowl, and said liquid or cushion back ma extend upwardly and along the side Wa ls 25 and 26 of the bowl, in Fig. 1, and
along the sidewalls 52 and 53 in Fig. 16, to such extent as to determine the desired clearances or passages in the openings 11 through the plate 42. The ingredient to be separated is admitted through the inlet passage 21, discharging through the opening 22 into the separating zone of the primary separating chamber. The heavier substance is forced to the bowl eriphery-and conveyed through the respective openings 41 into the chamber base 34. While the heavier slibstance is being carried toward the base of the bowl, the lighter liquid substance passes into the centrifugal level or column with the discharge port 32 in Fig. 1, and 64 in Fig. 16, and is discharged therefrom. Preferably, a series of spaced scraper members 40 contacts the lower base surface for the purpose of moving the solids to the point of discharge through the outlet opening provided centrally thereof. The heavier constituents are gravitated toward the periphery of the base, and as said solids are moved downwardly they become constantly freed from the lighter liquid substance, and practically entirely so by passing over the dry surface centrally of the vertical separating level toward the center of the base beyond the liquid column indicated by dotted lines in Figs. 1 and 16.
The peripheral flanged edge having the series of discharging openings 41 may be modified to suit various operating conditions. As shown in Figs. 1 and 16, the discharge openings may be located nearer to or farther from the bowl periphery, as circumstances may require.
In the separator to which certain features of the present'invention relate use is made of a cushion around the periphery of the bowl or a portionthereof. lt is conteniplated to provide for the separation of one or more liquids or one on more-solids, or both, fromA a mixture or aggregation of liq-` uids, or liquids and solids, which facts will be more fully disclosed presently. Ordinarily, it is intended that the cushion shall be of such specific gravity that the same will occupy a position against the wall or periphery of the bowl, the various components or constituents of the aggregated material lying within, or toward the center of rotation of the cushion. The cushion contemplated in the present invention is a separating or conveying, or a separating and conveying cushion, as distinguished from a cushion the function and purposes of which are for the amalgamation or dissolving of constituents' from the aggregate.
Where a stationary o1' non-traveling ciishion is used in accordance with one feature of my invention, this cushion will perform a. separating function, and the movement of the separated materials will occur by reason of other factors, in the manner to be more fully described. `Where, however, a traveling ornon-stationary cushion is used the cushion will serve to perform not only the separating function, but also will itself assist in conveying the' separated materials from one poitionof the machine to another.
In order that the nature of the cushion orl cushions contemplated in the present invention may be more fully and perfectly realized and apln-eciated l will describe more in detail methods of operation contemplated with structures disclosed herein. For example in the arrangement shown in Fig. l, the cushion material may be introduced by way of the groove or channel 2S, passing down through the tubes 27 to occupy a position against the peripheral surfaces 26 and 34. Inasmuch as the machine is rotating the 'cushion material will be caused to stand out against these surfaces by reason of the centrifugalforces thus developed. The eX- act position which this material will assume will depend upon the peripheral speed of the machine, the specific gravity of the material, the shape of the bowls, ete., but ordinarily the inner surface of the cushion will be substantially vertical. The vertically extending dotted lines, shown in Fig. 1, in` l dicate a convenient position for the surface of this cushion for certain classes of opera'- tion. The thickness of the cushion .will de.- pend upon the volume of cushion materlal contained within the machine as compared to the size and form of the lvariousparts of the machine, and it will be readilyrapparent K by changing the volume of the contains l that the thickness of the cushion can be regulated or adjusted or changed, if desired cushion material. If no additional amount of cushion material be introduced, and if none of the material be allowed to escape, the volume contained within the machine will remain unchanged, with the result that, 4other things remaining constant, the thickness and other characteristics of the cushion will remain unchanged. Such a cushion i may be designated a stationary cushion, and
that is what I contemplate particularly when I use the term stationary cushion. I do not mean by this term, necessarily, that the particles of the entrained cushion mate- Arial do not move back and forth upon themselves, but l mean that there is no delivery of new cushion material into the machine, and that the total volume contained within the machine remains substantially unvaried. Ou the other hand, if there be a circulation of cushion material through the machine, following from the introduction of new cushion material, and the simultaneous withdrawal or escape of previously contained material, it is evident that there will be a circulation of the cushion material through the machine, the average travel of such material being from the point of inlet to the point of exit or delivery. Such a cushion may be designated a traveling or moving cushion, and that is what l contemplate particularly when I use those terms. It is evident that if the rate of inlet and the rate of delivery of the cushion ma-y terial be equal, the total volume of cushion material contained within the machine will remain constant, in whlch case the thickness of the cushion layer will also remain substantially constant, and we will have a travcling or moving cushion of substantially constant thickness. On the other hand, if the rates of inlet and delivery of the cushion material be unequal, the total volume of cushion material within the machine will either increase or decrease. and the result will be that not only will the cushion be traveling or moving. but also its thickness will be.
varying. It, therefore, follows that a moving or traveling cushion may -be obtained of either constant or varying thickness.
From the foregoing it will be seen that it is possible to obtain either of several kinds meseta sired, 'for securing the various kinds of cushions above' enumerated.
In the particular arrangement illustrated, I have shown a discharge port 49 in the lower portion of the machine, the same being a port in an inwardly extending tube connected to the cup 34. I Within this tube there is mounted the slidable sleeve or plunger 50 having a port which may be registered either partially or wholly with' the port 49. If the edge of the port 49 of the sleeve 50 be stationary at a certain point it is evident that the surface of the cushion within the machine will ordinarily be determined by the position of said edge, inasmuch as the cushion will fill to a point where it will begin to overflow past said edge, and an introduction of additional cushion material by way of the tubes 29 will simply result in a traveling cushion of substantially constant thickness, the material traveling downward or toward the port. lf the'sleeve 50 be adjusted either in or out the position of the edge 49 will be varied, and, therefore, the excess of cushion material will overflow likewisethe surface will be varied to change or modify the thickness of the cushion. Therefore, in this way a stationary cushion of desired thickness may be obtained, or a traveling cushion of desired thickness may be obtained, and in either case the thickness of the cushion can be adjusted or varied by adjusting the position of the tube 50. lin Fig'. l l have illustrated by means of the substantially vertical dotted lines one position of the surface of the cushion. Assuming that a cushion of the desired material and thickness has been established, the aggregate or mixed material will be introduced down through the opening in the upper end of the spindle 18. By reason of the rotation of the bowl, a centrifugal separating action will take place, the heavier materials moving outward to occupy the positions farthest from the axis of rotation. The lighter materials will collect-farther in toward the axis 'of rotation, and will be drawn off or overflow through the discharge screw 32.
The heaviest materials will occupy the extreme outer positions, and will be thrown against the surface of the cushion. lf this cushion be traveling, the materials so thrown against it will be assisted in their movement toward and through the openings 41, so thatv they will pass down through said openings and into the space in the lower portion of the separator. The ease or facility with which these materials will be allowed to pass down through the openings 'llll will depend among other things upon the size or extent of such openings, as well as their contour or shape. By regulating the amount or extent of the openings, which can be accomplished by control of the thickness of the cushion, the ease with which the material will be allowed topass down into the lower portion' of the separator can be controlled, and consequently the average specific gravity of the material allowed toy pass through the openings 4l can` be controlled in this way. The size of the openings 41 also `con trols the size and comparative quality of materials allowed to pass through them, and,
therefore, the size and comparative quality of these materials can b'e controlled by varying the thickness. ofatlie cushion. o
If the cushitfn be stationary, of a form which has been heretofore described, heavier materials will, nevertheless, pass down in contact with the surface of the cushion and through the openings 41, although such movement will noti' necessarily be facilitated to the same extent as would be the case with a traveling cushion. I desire to'point out,
however, that even where a stationary cushion 1s usedthe downward movement of the heavier materials will be facilitated because the surface of the cushion can move or slide on the body portions of the cushion so as to give a fluid action, inasmuch as the cushion consists of aliquid or fluid material as disings 41 and into the lower portion of the separator, a further separating action will occur, the-heaviest materials remaining out toward the periphery or largest circle of rotation, and the lightermaterials whichA have passed through the openings 41, being caused to Work their way inward toward the axis of rotation. The heavier materials thus secondarily separated will be caught by the Scrapers 40, or any other suitable mechanism,.and Worked inward toward the central discharge openings 40f. The lighter materials will pass up and through the opening 45, if desired, so as to be again reseparated, or so as to findtheir way out through the screw discharge if they be of`proper specific gravity wfor such discharge. If on the other hand they contain heavier materials al still further separating actioncwill occur, so that the materials will, in effect, circulate around in the machine until only the lighter' portions discharge through the screw 32, and
the heavier portions down through the central discharge opening 40a.-
If the aggregated material originally ini troduced contains ingredients or constituents which are of greater specific gravity than the cushion, suchv materials will penetrate tain liquids.
thesurface of lthe cushion and be thrown against lthe lsurface of ,the bowl. If the cushion be traveling, such materials will be i gradually worked down while in contact v with thesurface of the bowl and will' be dislo charged through the opening 41 into the lower portion of .thefseparatoiz Here they will be thrown out against the surface of the bowl 34, and inasmuch as-said surface is of greater diameter than that of the bowl 26 it follows that these heavier materials can collect against the surface 34, Which will thus provide, in effect, a pocket forthese materials, where they may collect until the machine is. stopped for cleaning purposes. For example, certain of the precious metals A may thus be separated and allowed to collect within the machine. Or, by providing a traveling cushion, certain of these heaviest constituents may be causedto discharge with f the cushion material through the opening .40 Thus it will be seen that in either case 1t is possible to effect a separation of two 'heavy materials, such for example as two solids, angL such separation can be effected particul y if one of these solids be of greater specific gravity than the cushion, and the other of lesser specific gravity than the cushion.
I have shown in the several drawings a partition 43 between the two major portions o f the separator, said partition being provided with a perforation or opening 45, the size of which can be controlled by the screw 46.. This partition 43 will serve to assist 100 in controlling the separating'action under some conditions, but I wish to point out the fact that frequently ythis partition may be done away with, a sulliciently accurate and correct separation being obtained without its assistance. Y'
The material which-will be used for the cushion, under any conditions, will be selected largely according to the constituents of which the aggregation is composed. For
example, if the aggregation contains two solids which it is desired t0 separate, a cushion should preferably be chosen having a specific gravity approximately half way between or intermediate the-specific gravities ofl said solids... But if there -is a single solid to be separated, a cushion would preferably be chosen having a specific gravity greater than such solid; but if it were desired would be desirable to select a cushion mavsimply to effect separation -of liquids, a
terial which would not mix or chemically unite with'eitlier 0f the constituents'.
As an example of `one set. of conditions I will assume that the aggregated material contains tungsten andl nickel, as well as cer- The specific gravity of the i tungsten is approximately 17.3, while the nickel has a ,specific gravity of approx1 mately 8.7. Mercury, which 1s liquid at allordinary temperatures, 'has a specific gravity of approximately 13.6, and, therefore, stands in between the nickel and tungsten. On account of the high specific gravity of the mercury' the liquids containedfin the aggregate would not penetrate the mercury cushion, and the nickel would be thrown out Y against the surface of the mercury cushion particular worlr in hand,vor according to the various constituents contained in the aggregation. In some cases water would be of suilicient specific gravity to act as a suitable cushion, as, for example, when certain o1ls were to be separated; Or, for example, the
apparatus might be used for the separation i of beer grains from the beer.
In this case, a cushion of brine or carbon tetra-chlorid would be used, the beer grains being thrown out against the cushion, and delivered down through the openings 41, and ultimately delivered from the opening 40, while the separated beer would ultimately be delivered through the threaded nozzle 32.
In the operation of the machine there is a continuous discharge of all constituents separated within the bowl, with the exception that where two solids are present and separated the heavier may be retained be-' hind the liquid or cushion back contacting the bowl periphery.
Although a vertical form of centrifugal separator has been shown and described, it is not intended to limit the invention thereto, since a horizontal construction and opermeeste partments and having peripheral openings means for regulating the movement and discharge of said liquid back, substantially 4as described.
2. A centrifugal separator comprising a separating bowl having adjacent the periphery thereoic passages through which a liquid may enter to form a peripheral liquid cushion therewithin, a bowl base constitutingl in eii'ect a dam' by which said liquid cushion is held and distributed upwardly within the. separating bowl against the peripheral walls thereof, and a plate intermediate said bowl and base formed with a discharge opening therethrough, said opening being more or less restricted in size to regulate the discharge and travel therethrough of solids or heavv constituents `according as the body of liquid forming `.the said liquid cushion is varied in quantity, substantially as described.
3. In a separator, a separating bowl, a plate within said bowl providing separating compartments therein, an opening in said plate adjacent the periphery of said'bowl establishing communication between said compartments, and means for controlling the passage of a heavier separated constituent through said opening consisting of a liquid or cushion back adjacent the periphery of said bowl and extending normally into said opening, and means for regulating the thickness or body of said liquid or cushion back,
'whereby the unrestricted portion of said opening may be varied, substantially as described.
4. In a separator, a separating bowl arranged to provide main and secondary separating compartments therein, means for permitting a lighter separa-ted constituent to pass into the main separating compartment of the bowl without interference for maintaining a harmonious balance of column, whereby the said lighter constituent may be continuously moved upwardly and a heavier constituent moved downwardly to discharge from the bowl base, substantially as described.
5. In a separator, a separating bowl comprising a plurality ofseparating compartments, passages between said compartments for enabling the lighter portions of an ingredient to pass therethrough to be ejected from the separator, said passages being adjustable to permit the column of separated lighter constituents in the several compartments to be brought into or out of balance with one another as desired, substantially as described.
6. In a machine of the class described the combination with an inclosing vessel, of a partition within. the same serving to divide said vessel into primary and secondary sepalll@ rating chambers, there being openings in the periphery of said partition to establish communication between the chambers, means for establishing a cushion on the peripheral surfaces of both chambers and through the perforations, and means for regulating the thickness of said cushion.
7.. In a machine of the class described the combination With primary and secondary separating chambers and va partition dividing said chambers, there being perforations in the periphery of said partition, of means for establishing a cushion of material against the peripheral surfaces of both chambers and through said perforations, and means for regulating the thickness of said cushion.
8. In a machine of the class described the I combination with primary and secondary separating chambers and a partition mem ber interposed between the peripheral portions of said chambers, there being perforations inthe periphery of said member to give communication,between the peripheries of said chambers, of means for establishing a cushion against the lperipheral surfaces of said chambers and through said perforations, and means for regulating the thickness of said cushion.
i EDWARD lV. BEACH.
A. E. BARBER, K EDWARD F. WILLIAMS.