US 1965542 A
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July 3, 1934- w. coLvlN, JR 1,965,542
' FABRIC Filed Nov. 24. 1955 'f /N l/E/v rox? WILL/AM Z701, VIN J,
Y ATTORNEYS Patented July 3, 1934 UNITED STATES PArsN'rvoI-rlc's 12 Claimse This application in so far as common subjectmatter is concerned, is a continuation in part and in combined form of my application Ser. No. 545,276 led June 18, 1931, relating to Threads 5 or yarns and fabrics woven therefrom; Ser. No. 563,169 filed September 16, 1931, relating to Threads or yarns and fabrics knitted therefrom; and my application Ser. No. 615,543 filed June 6, 1%32, relating to Threads or sewing.
The invention relates to threads or yarns composed partially of wire and partially of textile fibers but which are endowedk with characteristics of appearance, softness, flexibility, give and resistance to kinking and snarling, fairly comparable tc like threads or yarns composed enma tirely of textile fibers, and which may be used for hand or machine sewing or for the machine production of fabrics, such as by weaving or knitting. It relates particularly to wire threads or yarns which can be used with or interchangeably with threads or yarns composed entirely of textile fibers in any ordinary textile loom, knitting machine or sewing machine, and this without any change or adjustment of the machine. Et also relates to fabrics composed entirely of such wire threads or yarns, or partially of such wire threads or yarns and partially of other 1 threads or yarns such as silk, cotton, wool, rayon or the like. My fabrics have the appearance, 'and to such. a substantial degree the characteris-- tics ci' softness and flexibility, cf a fabric of similar weave composed entirely of textile fibers that, generally speaking, it is quite impossible to detect the presence of the wire by a casual examination of the fabric. i
Machines can be and have been designed which will weave practically any kind of wire into a fabric, For example, screening, netting, fencing, wire gauze, stiening fabrics, wire reinforcing, etc., are produced by specially designed ma chnes which Weave the wires together. So far I am aware, however, no one has heretofore been able successfully to produce a wire reinforced thread or yarn of such characteristics that the ordinary mill equipment now used in the textile industries can manipulate the same into` cloth and knit goods with the same facility and degree of perfection as pure textile threads or yarns, or which can be used for sewing on an ordinary thread sewing machine.
Wire fabrics made in accordance with my invention have many applications such, for example, as in aircraft, sails, tents, awnings, millinery, upholstering, carpets,r rugs, tapes braids curtains, ,roof and lwall coverings, wearing apparel, etc.,
(Cl. luf-52) and for general use where extraordinary strength, resistance to stretching and shrinking or electrica'tion of the fabric for heating or other purposes is desirable. lliey lend themselves particularly to uses where it is desired to simulate in all its characteristics a textile fabric of any Well known standard knit or weave and yet have great strength, resistance to stretching or shrinking in one or both directions, electrical heating or a substantially lire proof fabric. Some or" my g5 fabrics, for example, can be used for covering the wings of aeroplanee not only because of their extremely high strength but because they may be made substantially tire proof and may be heated by passing a current of. electricity through g@ the wires to prevent the formation of ice on the Wing surfaces. Similarly, electrically heated garm ments haring all of the softness and flexibility of ordinary cloth fabrics may be made for-aviators.
As distinguished from the closely woven fabrics, g5 knitted fabrics may be designed to provide a considerable amount of give which particularly adapts them for wearing apparel.
In ci the 'vast amount of money new invested in weaving, knitting and sewing machin- 8@ ery designed to handie only ordinary textile threads or yarns, and which my invention makes available for the production of wire fabrics, the primary object of my invention may be said to be in providing a thread or yarn having a wire S, core and which can be used in these already built textile machines for the production of wire fabrics of the same character, with the same facility, and with the saine high degree of perfection as the purely textile fabrics which are 9, now produced on these machines.
A further object is to produce fabrics substantially identical with, or very closely approximating in appearance and characteristics, tabrics composed entirely of textile yarns or threads, but in which all or a substantial portion of the structure is composed of threads or yarns haying a wire core.
With these and other objects in view, my invention includes the novel thread or yarn and ma the fabrics made therefrom. which` are described Vbelow and illustrated inthe accompanying drawing in which- Fig. 1 is a highly magnified but not substan-` tially distorted drawing of my thread or yarn in which the core is a #36 wire (B Si S gauge) having an actual diameter of 0.005 inches;
Fig. 2 ls a View showing how my wire falls limply into a loop without kinking or snarling Y after it has been subjected to tensile stress;
Fig. 3 is a view similar to Figa or ordinary magnet wire showing how it kinks and snarls when permitted to become slack after being subjected to tensile stress;
Fig. 4 is a magnified and distorted view of a woven fabric in which the entire warp is composed of my wire reinforced threads and the weft of threads composed entirely of textil fibers;
Fig. 5 is a fabric similar to that shown in Fig. 4 in which the entire weft is composed of my threads and the entire Warp of textile threads;
Fig. 6 is a fabricsimilar to that shown in Fig. 4 in which the warp is composed partially of my threads and partially of textile threads and in which the weft is composed entirely of textile threads;
Fig. 7 is a fabric similar to that shown in Fig. 4 in which the warp is composed entirely of textile threads and the weft partially of my threads and' partially of textile threads;
Fig. 8 is a fabric similar to that shown in Fig. 4 in which the warp and weft is each composed partially of my threads and partially of ordinary textile threads;
Fig. 9 is a highly magnified and distorted view of a knitted fabric composed partially of textile Vthreads and partially of my threads; and
Fig. 10 is a fabric similar-to that shown in Fig. 9 but which is composed entirely of my threads. Obviously any wire reinforced thread or yarn which can be successfully used in weaving, knitting or sewing 'machines designed to manipulate only threads and yarns composed entirely of textile bers must very closely approximate in many of its characteristics a purely textile thread or yarn, otherwise special machines must be designed to manipulate it successfully. In weaving, knitting and sewing, any thread or yarn is subjected to tensile stress at repeated intervals between which it is more or less slack., Ordinary textile thread or yarn does not kink or snarl when so manipulated and any wire thread or yarn which can be successfully used must be'comparable with a textile thread or yarn in this respect. Furthermore, a wire thread or yarn must be identical or substantially identical in appearance with the other yarns with which it is knitted or interwoven.
For purposes of electrical insulation, it is common practice to coverfine wire with a layer of textile material in the form of threads wound about the wire. Inasmuch as the primary purpose is to cover the wire as eihciently and cheaply as possible, a thread having practically any number of ends can be employed, the greater the'number of ends, the quicker the wire can be covered. In order further to insulate the ordinary so-called magnet wire, the surface of the metal is some times coated with lacquer. Very frequently the lacquer is the onlyinsulation used on. the wire, but occasionally a lacquer covered vwire is also covered with a single layer of cotton or silk thread. The dielectric properties of a coating of lacquer about the wire combined with a single covering of cotton and silk are fully as good if not superior tothe dielectric properties of two layers of cotton or silk about the wire and since the power of a magnet depends upon the number of ampere turns the space re'- quired for the windings is a very important factor. A thread winding about a. wire of the order of #36 or' finer practically doubles its diameter. Hence, most magnets are wound from wire having only a coating of lacquer thereon because twice as many turns can be made in a given space as with a thread insulated wire. Some are wound with wire having a coating of lacquer and a single layer of cotton or silk thread over the lacquer. So far as I am aware, there was no wire manufactured, prior to my wire, which could be successfully used for knitting, weaving or sewing in an ordinary textile machine. Neither is there any wire manufactured and commercially available which is both coated with lacquer and covered with two layers of textile material in the manner required by my invention in its preferred form. Furthermore, there is no wire commercially available which is inherently corrosion resistant or which has a corrosion resistant surface, other than lacquer, and which is thread insulated. 0f course, any wire manufacturer will make 'wire to any specification, but so-called double insulated lacquered wire is not carried in stock and, if obtainable at all, can Vbe had only on special order.
Fine, so-called magnet wire Wrapped with a single layer of thread cannot be successfully used in textile weaving, knitting and sewing machines. When such a wire is even slightly stressed in tension, the textile covering thereon tends to twist and straighten out. This will be apparent if a piece of such kind of wire, say three feet long, is grasped in the manner shown in Figs. 2 and 3 and pulled taut. As the stress is placed upon the wire, it will be noted that the fibers of the covering which outstand along the wire tend to turn. When the stress is relieved, as shown in Fig. 3, the wire immediately iiies into loops, kinks and twists, such as there shown. Such action clogs a textile machine and makes either hand or machine sewing impossible not only because -of the kinks but because, once kinked, the wire ruptures under comparatively low tension when again pulled taut.
Fine magnet wire wrapped with a double layer of thread is not ordinarily manufactured because of the small demandtherefor. Such wire, while not subject to kinking and snarling to the same degree as a single wrapped wire when stressed in tension and relieved, nevertheless does twist. kink and break to such an extent as to render it wholly impracticable for use in a machine designed to manipulate only textile threads or yarns. In these respects it is not substantiallybetter than a wire wrapped with a single layer of thread.
I nd that this tendency to kink and snarl when relieved of tension, can be overcome` by covering the Wire with two layers of 'thread wound in opposite directions about the wire core in such a way that twisting stresses developed when the wire is stressed in tension and relieved, are substantially balanced. When such a double wound wire is stressed in tension, one layer of the covering tends to twist the thread structure in one direction while the other layer tends to twist it in the opposite direction, thus the tendency of the composite structure to twist inl either direction is neutralized. 4In other words the coverings may be said to oi'fer substantially balanced resistances to torsional stresses tending to twist the thread, or to develop torsional strains which are substantially balanced, and the wire or thread, when subjected to tension of the order encountered in manipulating the thread in weaving, knitting and sewing, and relieved, falls limply into a fairly smooth loop as shown in Fig. 2. If very strongly stressed, the loop may merely twist a turn or two but there will be no kinking or snarling.
' A wire thread or yarn, according to my invention, must be flexible where it is to be used for sewing, knitting, or in the weft of a woven fabric. In other words the thread or yarn can not be stiff and wiry but must, in its characteristics of softness and flexibility, approximate as closely as possible a pure textile strand of like size. Where it is to be used in the warp of a woven fabric, it may be appreclably less flexible and yet be maniplO ulated by the machine.
In fabricating wire threads or yarns which will not kink and snarl when subjected to tension of the order encountered in weaving, knitting and sewing, and then relieved, so manyvariable and 'l5 uncertain factors must be taken into consideration that it seems quite impossible to deduce mathematical formulae which will lead to certain results in. all cases.
For example if 120/6 thread (which means a 520 thread of No. 120 size having six parallel ends or strands) is examined under a powerful magnifying glass, it will be found that the separate strands vary considerably in size. Five of the strands may be fairly identical in size while the sixth strand may be very much'larger or very much smaller than the others. Again, only four strands may be comparable in size while the fifth is relatively very small and the sixth relativen! very large.
While the wrapping threads are generally made with a left twist, they are sometimes made with a right twist, and this is aofactor which must be considered because the manner in which the threads lie on the wire depends both upon the 35. twist and upon the direction in which the thread is laid about the wire. For example, a left twisted thread will cling tightly to the wire when wound about it with a left lay but will tend to unwind if wound with a right lay. Likewise a right twist- 40 ed thread clings tightly when laid to theright about the wire, but with a left lay it is comparatively loose and tends to unwind.
The humidity or moisture in the atmospherev k""will affect the balance of the wire particularly in the finer sizes to the extent that a wir'e in substantially neutral balance on an average day lmay show some degree ofunbalance in one direction or the other on a rainy day or on an extremely hot day with low humidity.
Again, the wrapping thread is'compressible to a considerable degree and to the extent that a wire of given size may be covered with thread of y a given size wound at measurably different pitches.
Depending upon the size of the wire, the4 tension under which the windings are applied may `substantially affect the balance.
, Again, the commercial threads which are obtainable aresizes 120, 100, 80, etc. These are 60 obtainable with substantially any number of ends or strands but obviously not in fractions of strands. Hence, if mathematical calculations indicated that to obtain a theoretically desirable pitch ratio in the upper and lower windings a No. si 120 thread having 5.5 ends should be used in the first wrapping, with a. No. 100 thread having 6.5 ends in the tab, it would be necessary to compromise on a 5 or 6 end bottom with a 6 or 'l end top depending on which gives or should give the best lo balance.
It must be borne in mind that except in the i'lner sizes, say #30 gauge and finer, accurate theoretical balance is not so essential. Perhaps it would be more accurate to say that where the thread is not slightly stretched or elongated in snarl when subjectedto tension of the order encountered in the weaving, knitting or sewing operations in which it is to be used, and then relieved. Obviously, the ner the wire core the more the thread or yarn will elongate during the manipulation thereof, and hence, as a general rule, it may be said that the finer the thread the finer the balance required. Moreover, the coarser the wire the more inherent resistance it has to twisting, kinking and snarling.
As a specific example of my thread or yarn I will show below the effect of winding a #36 wire in various ways. 'Ihe thread employed was a left twist cotton both in the bottom and top layers, and the bottom winding was a right lay and the top winding a left lay in all cases.
It should be noted that in the case of a wire wound with a singleri'ght-lay wrapping when slightly stressed in tension and permitted to fall into a loop as shown in Fig. 2, the loop,.` when observed from above the hands, will turn ortwist in a clockwise direction, whereas a single left-lay .wrapping will cause the loop to twistl counterclockwise. Hence, if a loop of wire wound with a right-lay bottom and leftflay top twists clockwise it is due to what may conveniently be termed an over balance in the lower winding, and if it twists counter-clockwise, it is due to an over balance in the upper winding.
In the following table ai is the pitch angle of the helix of the inner winding, and a2 is the pitch angle of the helix of the outer winding. These were determined quite accurately by cutting a six inch length of thread and unwinding and measuring the length of the inner and outer thread layers thereon.l From these measurements the pitch angles a1 and a2 were calculated.
Ratio Thread tan a2 Specimen susl Specimen B indicated a very bad bottom overbalance to the extent that the loop flew into kinks and snarls. It is entirely unsuitable for' sewing, weaving or knitting.
Specimens C and D both indicated a very baci overbalance in the top. These threads were prac- M0 tically as much out of balance as specimen B and are entirely unsuited for weaving, knitting or sewlng.
Specimen E, when examined under a magnifying glass, indicated comparatively wide `gapsin the outer Winding, estimated as having a Width o from one to two threads, so that its general appearance was much like a barber pole. However, this thread showed only a moderate top overba-lance and, in this respect, is quite well suited for weaving, sewing and knitting. Although not as good as specimen A, it did not kink or snarl.
Specimen F showed a slight overbalance in the top but is practically as well if notlbetter balanced than specimen A and is well suited for weaving, sewing and knitting.
From the foregoing it' will be apparent that for a No. 36 wire core very slight changes in the relative pitches of the inner and outer windings substantially affect the balance of the composite thread. The difference between specimen A and specimen B is only about 4 in the top and 2 in the bottom, yet A is good, whereas B is hopelessly bad. Likewise specimen B does not diier substantially from specimen F in the top wrappings and there is something less than 2 difference in the bottom wrappings yet F is a very well balanced thread.
In practice, the following procedure is recommended to produce a balanced thread.
The lacquered or enameled wire is drawn upwardly through an insulation winding machine adapted to apply simultaneously the inner and outer thread wrappings in opposite directions about -the wire. If a No. 36 wire is being covered witha No. 120/6 thread in the lower layer and a No. 120/6 thread in the upper layer, the pitch angle at which the rst wrapping is applied should be adjusted so that the wire is well covered as it advances, and the pitch angle at which the second wrapping is applied should be adjusted so that the inner wrapping is smoothly covered by the outer wrapping. 'I'hese angles will probably automatically work out to lbe between 55 and 65 for the inner winding and between 40 and 50 for the outer. It is not necessary to know their precise values and it is only required that both Wrappings effect a good coverage.
As the wrapped wire passes from 'the machine, break oif a three foot length and subject to fairly good tension by pulling with the hands and then permit it to fall into a loop as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. If the wire is very much out of balance, it may be necessary to .try a very light tension on the first tests otherwise, when relieved, it will fly so quickly into kinks and snarls that it will be quite impossible readily to determine which way the loop twisted.
As the wire falls into the loop, note which way the loop twists. If clockwise. it indicates an overbalance in the bottom winding, and if counter-- clockwise, an overbalance in the upper winding. The pitch at which one or both of the windings is being applied should then be changed very slightly to correct for Vthis unbalance. Generally, decreasing the pitch angle of the inner helix or increasing the pitch angle of the outer helix will correct an overbalance in the lower winding. Likewise, generally, increasing the pitch angle of the inner helix or decreasing the pitch angle of the outer helix will correct an overbalance in th outer winding.
-After changing the pitch angle of one or both of the windings repeat the loop test andagain adjust the pitch angle or angles to correct any overbalance which is sufilcient to cause pronounced snarling or kinking when the thread is subjected to tension of the order encountered in the use-sewing, weaving or knitting-to which it is to be put, and then relieved. Repeat the test and adjust if necessary.
In applying the thread wrapping it is extremely desirable that the tension on the thread be so regulated that the wire itself is not distorted thread wrappings than is necessary to obtain a good even coverage.
Where my wire thread or yarn is being supplied to a textile mill in which the' weaving or Y knitting operations are conducted in an atmosphere of constant humidity, the thread may be manufactured and balanced in an atmosphere of the same humidity so that an ideal thread is thus obtained.
The pitch at which the windings are laid affects the ilexibility of the wire as will be apparent from a consideration oi what occurs when the thread is ilexed as a beam, bearing in mind that while a fine thread offers slight resistance to bending it does, nevertheless, oiIer appreciable resistance to tensile stress. Where the Wrappins are laid at a comparatively hat pitch or at a large angle to the axis of the wire the convolutions of the wrappings on the side of the wire which is subjected to tension tend merely to separate. In
other words, the strands of the covering are not subjected to tensile stress and ,therefore do not appreciably resist the bending. On the other hand, lwhere the wrappings are laid at a compara.- tively steep pitch or small angle with the wire axis, the strands of the wrapping, instead ot separating on the side of the wirewhich is subjected to tensile stress to the same degree as flat pitch windings, are themselves stressed in tension and thus tend to increase the resistance of the wire to bending. For this reason, it is desirable to attain a balanced thread by selecting as ilat pitch angles for the inner and outer helices as is consistent with economical production. These angles, of course, may be varied considerably by varying the number of ends in the wrappings. Generally, it is not necessary to use less than iive ends in the rst wrapping to attain the desired result, and once the pitch angle oi the nrst wrapping is xed, the number of ends and the size of thread used in the outer wrapping is more or less tlxed by the necessity of covering the inner wrapping and at the same time balancing the thread.
While I prefer t'o attain the desirable kink and snarl resisting characteristics of my thread by adjusting, as pointed out above, the pitches, or either of them, at which the windings are applied it is to be understood that my invention is not limited to this method of procedure. Any thread having two wrappings wound in opposite directions about the wire core and which indicates, when subjected to the tension and loop" test above described, that it is decidedly unbalanced, may be made resistant to kinking and snarlingby rst subjecting it to sumcient tension to eiect a. slight permanent elongation or stretching, and then permitting the torsional strains thus developed in the thread to relieve themselves by twisting the thread axially in the proper direction while it is maintained under sufficient tensile stress to prevent looping. A thread so treated will not-kink or snarl when again subjected to tensile stress of the order required to effect the elongation and then subjected to the loop test. However, threadvwhich has thus been stretched beyond the elastic limit of the wire core lacks, to a considerable degree, 150
the soft, yielding, elastic characteristics of thread balanced by my preferred procedure, and is very apt to rupture without giving or stretching to any appreciable degree when again subjected to tensile stress. f n
lWhile my invention is not limited to the copper wire alone, I find that this metal can be readily processed to adapt it for weaving, knitting and sewing, and that excellent fabrics can be made therefrom on ordinary machinery designed to handle only pure textile material.'
Where the thread is to be used for knitting', sewing and in the weft of the fabric, the metal in the core should have characteristics of strength,`
flexibility and ductility reasonably comparable with commercially pure annealed copper. Ironsv and low carbon steels, for example, can be soft annealed to have these desirable characteristics, and these and any other metals or alloys in which these physical properties are inherent, or which can be processed to endow the wire drawn therefrom with these characteristics, can be used.
.Where the wire is to be used in the warp, flexibility is not such an important factor, except insofar as it affects the character of the finished goods, and for this reason wire which is very much less flexible than copper can be employed.
In the finer sizes great care should be exercised in the wire drawing process to insure that the metal core is absolutely uniform 'in cross section throughout. yUniformly low or moderate drawing speeds with a gradual reduction to the desired size, are recommended, as distinguished from the relatively high, non-uniform speeds and quick reduction to size which characterizes the production of ordinary magnet or other wire not intended to be subjected to substantial tensile stress. Weak spots in the core itself, if theydo not cause rupture, permit the thread to stretch or elongate to a greater` degree in the zones thereof than elsewhere, thus unduly stressing the windings about these spots and cause kinking.
For universal use, however, the wire is preferably made of commercially pure copper or a metal which hasor can be processed to 'have the desirable characteristics of copper. For sizes 32 (B` 81S gauge) and finer, the copper wire is drawn down very carefully from size 22 to insure absolute uniformity in size and is thereafter pot annealed ata temperature from 600 F. to 150 F., according to size, for a period of from 1% to 2 hours. After the heating` treatment, the pots are sealed and the wire is allowed to soak until the temperature reaches F. to 100 F.,- which ordinarily will require from l5 to 18 hours. This treatment should produce a wire havinga minimum elongation of about 25%.
Inasmuch as copper is not highly resistant'to corrosion and many fabrics in the course of normal use will be washed or otherwisek subjected or above ingredients are mixed to produce a varnish containing about 54% solids and approximately 46% solvent, and having a specific gravity of about 0.90.
Inasmuch as my thread or yarn for universal use is subjected to severe bending, it is quite essential-thatthe varnish coating employed be extremely flexible so that it does not 'fapp'r'eciably effect the flexibility of lthe wire. Moreover the varnish should be of such character thatA it will not crack or flake when thefinished threadv or yarn is bent about a mandrel of its own diameter;
To produce the specially flexible coating required for my thread, the varnish should be applied by successive passes through-a bath' and baking oven. For example, the wire-may be given four separate coats of varnish and, after each" coat, run through a six foot oven at a temperature of from 750 F. to 800 F., and at a speed of 60 to 80 feet per minute depending somewhat on the size of the wire being coated. The thickness of the coating may vary from say'0.00015 to 0.0005 inch depending upon the size of the wire.
Referring to Fig. 1, 7 is the wire core coated ywith, the enamel 8. After coating with enamel the wire is covered, in the manner described above, with two layers or wrappings of fibrous mai terial such as thread of silk, cotton, rayon, wool or the like depending upon the character of the .fabric desired and, where the fabric is to be electrified, upon the insulation required. The outer layer is always laid in a reverse directionto that s' of the inner layer and is preferably always a left finer sizesy of wire'such as the No. 36'here'shown,`
may comprise five or six ends 9'.
Bearing in'mind' that in Wire of the finer sizes the first wrapping of threadapproximately doubles or more than doubles the diameter of the wire and that it is quite essential, in order to prevent kinking and snarling, that the inner and outer layers of wrapping offer substantially balanced resistances to torsional stresses developed by tension onthe thread, it may be necessary or desirable to use more or less ends inthe outer wrapping than in the inner wrapping in order to attain this result and completely co'ver the inner wrapping.
Where necessary or desirable, the fibrous covering may be impregnated withsuitable cornpounds, but the finished 'wire should have a smooth polished surface. As a matter of fact it is recommended in anyjc'ase, after the coverings have been wrapped about the wire, that thewire roys, velvets, plushes etc.,"a wax-impregnated wire thread while 'not absolutely essential is extremely desirable from a practical 'standpoint because the weaving process is greatly facilitated'thereby. If
desired, after the fabric lis Woven', the Wax may' be removed by ordinary'washing or, depending upon the character of, the1 wax, bytheA use of appropriate solvents.
For, example,v toprovide a v,very smooth, slick surface, or, for insulating purposes, the wire may be run through a bathcornprising about 35% of: light carnauba wax, 15% of white finishing was;
with a parafiine base,*and y50% of regular parafline wax with a melting point of around 130 F. ,The bath mixture should be heatedlto around 220 F. and the wire speed may be about'w vfeet per should be carefully wiped and polished to provide a uniformly smooth surface nish. Three felt wipers advantageously placed may be employed, the first to remove the surplus compound, the second to remove the roughness, and the third to smooth and polish thecoating.
Where flame resisting characteristics are desired, the fibrous material may be impregnated with Halowax, which` consists of chlorinated naphthalene, or with a compound made up of oxidized stearine pitch.
In preparing my wire for use in the loom it is first spooled in continuous lengths. The required number of spools corresponding to the number of individual strands or wire in the fabric are then placed on racks, each spool having its own spindle upon which it may turn freely. The ends of the wire are taken from the spools and around two cylindrical tension bars, each successive end being taken around the bars in the opposite direction to the next end. From the tension bars the wires are led to and wound on the beam by power, thepreviously mentioned tension devices providing a smooth uniform wind on the beam. The wires are uniformly spaced on the beam by means of reeds and the ends of the wires are tied to a reed secured to the beam so that threading into the loom is facilitated.
Where the metal or alloy of which the wire is made is resistant to corrosion and the enamel coating is not needed for electrical insulation, it
may be omitted. Likewise, where staining of the fabric due to corrosion of the copper is immaterial, the enamel coating may also be omitted.
For purposes of illustration only, I have shown in Figs. 4, 5, 6 and l a typical duck or twill lweave and although these drawings indicate that the fabric is of open texture it is to be understood that this is merely for purposes of clearness and that in the fabrics as actually woven the strands are very close together and the fabric is in all respects identical in appearance with ordinary duck or twill composed entirely of textile threads. In Figs. 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 the vertical strands indicate the warp in each case and the horizontal strands the weft.
In Fig. 4 the warp strands 11 are made of my thread while the weft strands 12 are of textile thread.
In Fig. 5 the warp strands 13 are of textile threads and the weft strands 14 are ofvmy wire threads.
In Fig. 6 the alternate warp strands 15 are wire threads and the other warp strands 16 are of textile threads while the weft threads 17 are of textile threads.
In Fig. 7 all of the warp strands 18 are of textile threads while wire threads 19 and textile threads 20 alternate in the weft. In Fig. 8 wire strands 21 alternate with textile strands 22 in the warp and wire strands 23 alternate with textile strands 24 in the weft.
Although I have not shown any fabric in which the entire warp and weft is composed of wire, it is to be understood that it is perfectly possible to weave such a fabric. Furthermore, it is to be understood that my wire threads are adapted for making any kind of woven cloth.l
In Figs. 9 and 10 I have shown knitted fabrics which for the purposes of clearness are shown as greatly enlarged and distorted to the extent that the fabrics appear to be open. Actually these fabrics may be Aas closely knitted as any knitted fabric composed entirely of textile yarn.
minute. As the wire emerges from the bath, it
In Fig. 9 I have shown one of my threads 25- interknitted with textile yarns 26 and 27 while in Fig. l0 I have shown a knitted fabric composed entirely of wire reinforced yarns 28.
It is to be understood that my covered wire is intended primarily for use in instances where it is subjected to tension of the order encountered in hand and machine-sewing and in textile machinery, and where, in the use of wrapped wire there would be a substantial tendency for it to kink or snarl. Hence, to avoid excessive verbiage, the term textiles, as used in the claims, is to be understood as including textile fabrics and structures of the character ordinarily composed only of pure textile fibers and made or stitched, or which ,can be made or stitched, on or by ordinary looms, knitting machines, or sewing machines designed to manipulate only threads or yarns composed entirely of textile fibers, as distinguished from fabrics and structures which can not be so made, although it is to be understood that the "laims are to be interpreted as including thread for hand stitching. The terms textile machine" and textile machinery are to be deemed as including sewing, knitting and weaving machines of the type ordinarily employed in the manipulation of pure textile threads or yarns, las distinguished from such machines especially designed to manipulate wire. Likewise the term thread is to be understood as including yarn.
What I claim is:
-l. As a new article of manufacture, thread for use in sewing and fabricating textiles, and which can be used in textile machinery with substantially the same facility as thread composed entirely of textilelflbers, comprising a ductile, easily flexible metal wire core enclosed in wrappings oi' textile thread including two layers laid in opposite directions on the said core, said wrappings being so laid and correlated as to develop substantially balanced torsional strains when subjected to tension effecting a permanent elongation of the core; whereby correlative action of the wrappings substantially overcomes the tendency of any portion of the composite thread to kink or snarl after the release of tension thereon.
2. As a new article of manufacture, a thread for use in sewing and fabricating textiles, comprising a ductile, easily flexible, substantially inelastic core of a character to become permanently elongated when subjected to tension, said core being enclosed in two layers of wrappings of flexible character laid in relatively opposed directions on the same, said wrappingsbeing so laid and correlated as to develop substantially balanced torsional strains when subjected to tension enecting a permanent elongation of the core; whereby correlative action of the wrappings substantially ,overcomes the tendency of any portion of the composite thread to kink or snarl after release of tension thereon.
3. As a new article of manufacture, a thread for use in sewing and fabricating textiles and which can be used-in textile machinery with substantially the same facility as thread composed entirely of textile fibers, the same including a ductile, easily flexible metal wire core enclosed in layers of wrappings of flexible character laid on the said core in relatively opposed directions, said wrappings being so laid and correlated as to develop substantially balanced torsional strains when subjected to tension effecting a permanent elongation of the core; whereby correlative action of the wrappings substantially overcomes the tendency of any portion of lthecomposite thread to kink or snarl after release of tension thereon.
4. The structure set forth in claim 3 in which the surface of the wire is resistant to corrosion.
5. A fabric comprising as an essential portion thereof thread in accordance with claim 3.
6. A fabric comprising as an essential portion thereof thread in accordance with claim 3, in which the surface of the core of said thread is resistant to corrosion.
'1.'A woven fabric comprising as an essential portion thereof thread in accordance with claim 3.
8. A knitted fabric compriisng as an essential portion thereof thread in accordance with claim 3.
9. A fabric composed substantially entirely of thread in accordance with claim 3.
10. A woven fabric characterized by a substantial portion of the warp being composed of thread in accordance with claim 3.
11. A wovenfabric characterized by a substantial portion of the weft or filler being composed of thread in accordance' with claim 3.
12. As a new article of manufacture, a fabric having the appearance and, to a substantial degree, the characteristics of softness and flexi-v bility of a fabric of similar structure composed entirely of textile threads and made by textile machinery, characterized by being formed in substantial part of thread having a fine, substantially inelastic, easily flexible, ductile metal Wire lcore enclosed in a plurality of layers of Wrappings of textile thread wound on the core in relatively opposed directions, said wrappings being so laid and correlated as to develop substantially balanced torsional strains when subjected to tension effecting a permanent elongation of the core; whereby correlative action of the wrappings substantially overcomes the tendency of any portion of the composite thread to kink or snarl after release of tension thereon.
WILLIAM COLVIN, JR.