US 20020020134 A1
A building truss that is light weight, and easily manipulated yet provides superior strength for support is disclosed. The building truss is defined by a pair of parallel and spaced apart square tubing members, having joined between them, a lattice of cold rolled round reinforcing rod having a sinusoidal or zig-zag pattern. Additional spacers are provided to prevent twisting. Also, angled reinforcing pieces may be attached to the lattice for increased load bearing capabilities.
1. A building truss comprising:
a first elongated member formed of square cross-section hollow metallic tubing;
a second elongated member formed of square cross-section hollow metallic tubing;
said first elongated member being parallel to said second elongated member, separated by a predetermined distance; and
a third member formed of a round cross-section solid reinforcing metallic rod, said third member having a plurality of first bends and a plurality of second bends, said first bends and said second bends being alternately disposed thereby forming a sinusoidal pattern having a height substantially equal to the predetermined distance;
means for fixedly attaching said plurality of first bends to said first elongated member; and
means for fixedly attaching said plurality of second bends to said second elongated member;
wherein said third member being a lattice between said first and second elongated members.
2. The building truss according to
a plurality of angled metallic members disposed between said first bends and said second bends of said sinusoidal lattice; and
means for fixedly attaching said plurality of angled metallic members to said lattice.
3. The building truss according to
a plurality of first metallic spacer members disposed between selected said first bends and said second elongated member;
a plurality of second metallic spacer members parallel to said first metallic spacer members and disposed between selected said second bends and said first elongated member; and
means for fixedly attaching said plurality of first and second metallic spacer members to respective said selected first bends and second elongated member, and said selected second bends and said first elongated member;
wherein said first and second spacer members prevent twisting of the building truss.
 1. Field of the Invention
 The present invention relates to a steel truss system and process for manufacture.
 2. Description of Related Art
 Many areas of the world often encounter severe weather systems such as hurricanes, monsoons, blizzards, tornadoes, thunderstorms, etc. These weather system generally leave a wake of disaster. Many homes, communities, towns, and villages have been devastated by severe weather storms. In addition, the people of these areas also are left without shelter of any kind. Many forms of rigid constructions have come about in order to provide temporary or permanent dwellings. Some of the more recognized examples follow.
 U.S. Pat. No. Des. 198,987, issued Aug. 25, 1924 to Smith, shows a truss for reinforcing masonry walls. U.S. Pat. No. 3,364,640, issued Jan. 23, 1968 to Guddal, discloses a building stud having an inner pair of vertically arranged reinforcing rods, an outer pair of vertically arranged reinforcing rods, and a sinuously shaped web welded between the pairs of reinforcing rods. U.S. Pat. No. 4,054,013, issued Oct. 18, 1977 to Pitto et al., discloses a metal beam system for steel-concrete structures. U.S. Pat. No. 4,372,093, issued Feb. 8, 1983 to Ericsson, discloses a lattice truss having an upper and lower chord of wood and a continuous zig-zag steel web therebetween. U.S. Pat. No. 4,442,650, issued Apr. 17, 1984 to Sivachenko, discloses a girder defined by a pair of parallel corrugated chord plates having an intermediate sinusoidal connecting member. U.S. Pat. No. 4,748,786, issued Jun. 7, 1988 to Hannah, discloses an open web steel joist having L-shaped angles and W- or V-shaped interconnecting members.
 U.S. Pat. No. 5,448,866, issued Sep. 12, 1995 to Saito et al., discloses a space truss formed of a pair of plane trusses connected together by a strut member. U.S. Pat. No. 5,996,303, issued Dec. 7, 1999 to Pellock, discloses a truss formed of alternating metal webs. U.S. Pat. No. 6,006,483, issued Dec. 28, 1999 to Lee, discloses a deck panel having a lattice welded to an upper and lower steel bars. U.S. Pat. No. 6,026,613, issued Feb. 22, 2000 to Quiring et al., discloses a lightweight arched truss for fabric covered buildings. French Patent Document No. 1,221,815, published Jun. 3, 1960, shows a prefabricated lattice type building structure for multiple purposes. Canada Patent Document No. 592,984, published Feb. 23, 1960, shows a prefabricated building girder having angle irons and zig-zag webbing.
 None of the above inventions and patents, taken either singly or in combination, is seen to describe the instant invention as claimed.
 Many natural disasters such as storm, hurricanes, tornadoes, earthquakes, etc. occur often without warning. Many buildings and dwellings suffer severe damage and destruction at the occurrence of the disasters. When these calamities happen, often people are left without adequate shelter. Likewise, there are areas in the world, with or without a disastrous calamity, that have people without shelter. There is a need to provide cost and time efficient building construction materials that can be quickly transported and erected within hours of a disaster or calamity.
 Accordingly, it is a principal object of the invention to provide a cost and material efficient building truss.
 It is another object of the invention to provide a cost and material efficient building truss that provides the maximum strength and versatility.
 It is a further object of the invention to provide a prefabricated building truss having a square tubing and continuous round lattice webbing.
 Still another object of the invention is to prefabricated building truss having a square tubing and continuous round lattice webbing that is light weight, easily transported and quickly erected.
 It is an object of the invention to provide improved elements and arrangements thereof in an apparatus for the purposes described which is inexpensive, dependable and fully effective in accomplishing its intended purposes.
 These and other objects of the present invention will become readily apparent upon further review of the following specification and drawings.
 Similar reference characters denote corresponding features consistently throughout the attached drawings.
 The present invention is a building truss for economical and efficient temporary and permanent building erection. The building truss provides superior support strength, yet is substantially light-weight. This allows for easy handling and manipulation during manufacturing, fabrication, prefabrication construction, and on-site construction. The building truss is simply manufactured and is cost efficient.
 Referring to the Figures, the building truss has a uniform appearance. The uniform appearance is aesthetically appealing and allows for easy measuring and spatial dispositioning. The building truss is formed of three basic parts. These parts are two elongated square tubing members and a sinusoidally shaped lattice welded between the square tubing members.
 The first elongated square tubing has a square cross-section and is hollow. The second elongated square tubing also has a square cross-section and is hollow. The first elongated square tubing is parallel to the second elongated square tubing. Between the two square tubings is a separation of a predetermined distance.
 Within the predetermined distance is a solid reinforcing metallic rod having a round cross-section and having a sinusoidal or “zig-zag” lattice pattern. The sinusoidal lattice has a plurality of bends-arranged in an alternating concave “up” and concave “down” sequence. These plurality bends are uniformly spaced having a substantially straight portion of the rod between and coupling them together. The substantially straight portions are generally equal in length.
 The sinusoidal lattice has a height, i.e., between the crests of a concave up bend and a concave down bend, substantially equal to the predetermined distance between the two square tubings. The concave up crests of the lattice are fixedly attached to one of the square tubings. The concave down crests of the lattice are fixedly attached to other one of the square tubings. Preferably the fixed attachment is via welding however, any conventional form of attachment capable of withstanding the applied stresses to the truss is within the scope of the instant invention. Once attached, the square tubings are securely spaced apart by the predetermined distance that is substantially equal to the height of the lattice.
 Dimensionally, and as an example only, the two square tubings are in a range from approximately 0.5 inch to 2.0 inches square, preferably 1.5 inches square. The thickness is generally on the order of 14 gauge however, any suitable gauge may be used. The reinforcing rod is in the range from 0.250 inch to 0.500 inch diameter, preferably 0.375 inch diameter. The reinforcing rod is selected from the rolled rod stock, which accommodates the bending process in order to form the sinusoidal lattice. The rolled stock may be either hot or cold rolled, whichever is best suited and cost effective during manufacturing processes. The bends are generally approximately 1.250 inches in radius through an arc between 13° to 45°.
 In addition, a plurality of first metallic spacer members are positioned between the crests of selected bends (welded to the first square tubing) and the second square tubing. Also, a plurality of second metallic spacer members, aligned parallel to the first metallic spacer members are positioned between the crests of selected bends (welded to the second square tubing) and the first square tubing. Likewise, the first and second spacers are preferably welded however, any conventional form of attachment capable of withstanding the applied stresses to the truss is within the scope of the instant invention. The purpose of these first and second spacer members is to prevent twisting of the building truss under load.
 It is clearly seen that wooden planks, beams or girders may be provided between the square tubings, interposed with the lattice so that building constructions would have conventional forms or studs for finishing the building constructions with walls, ceilings, or the like. The girders are supported internally of the main square tubings in a manner that allows for flush mounting of wall or roof materials. This reduces excessive stresses on wallboards, ceiling tiles, etc. Like the girders, “C” channels or similar type construction elements may be disposed within the truss system for attaching wall or roofing elements. The “C” channels may be welded, bolted or riveted to the truss in a periodic manner so as to provide uniformity and accessibility to the erection of construct using the truss of the present invention.
 In addition, for added strength to the building truss, a plurality of angled metallic members against the straight portions of the lattice. This allows for increased strength to the building truss. This is especially useful where corners are formed, particularly at wall and ceiling joints.
 It is to be understood that the present invention is not limited to the sole embodiment described above, but encompasses all embodiments within the scope of the following claims.
FIG. 1 is a stress analysis diagram of a flat roof construction using the building truss according to the present invention.
FIG. 2 is a stress analysis diagram of a peaked roof construction using the building truss according to the present invention.
FIG. 3A is partial elevational view of a building construction wall and ceiling corner including the additional reinforcing features of the building truss according to the present invention.
FIG. 3B is a side elevational view of the reinforced straight portion of the lattice.
FIG. 3C is an end elevational view of the reinforced straight portion of the lattice.
FIG. 3D is a side elevational view of a spacer reinforcing member of the building truss-according to the present invention.