US 20030215632 A1
This invention discloses a fiber filament having ultraviolet ray hiding effect and fabric manufactured from said filament. The ultraviolet ray hiding effect of this invention is obtained by adding inorganic titanium dioxide particles having average diameter of less than 100 nm and constituting preferably less than 1 weight % of the total fiber. When fiber filaments of this invention are used in fabric production they constitute preferably over 50% weight of the fabric. thereby producing a fabric with opening rate preferably in excess of 0.7% but preferably less than 25%. The Ultraviolet Protective Factor (UPF) of said fabric is preferably over 40%.
1. A fiber with ultraviolet covering and reflective effect use to manufacture textiles for use as clothing and household textiles, such as curtains capable of preventing skin aging, sunburn and/or skin cancer, while enhancing wearing comfortableness and air permeability comprising:
(a) inorganic particles having average particle diameter less than 300 nm; and
(b) said inorganic particles constituting less than 1% weight of the total fiber.
2. A fiber with ultraviolet covering effect according to
3. A fiber with ultraviolet covering effect according to
4. A fiber with ultraviolet covering effect according to
5. A fiber with ultraviolet covering effect use in textile manufacturing according to
6. A fiber with ultraviolet covering effect use in textile manufacturing according to
7. A fiber with ultraviolet covering effect use in textile manufacturing according to
8. A fiber with ultraviolet covering effect use in textile manufacturing according to
9. A fiber with ultraviolet covering effect used in textile manufacturing according to
10. A fiber with ultraviolet covering effect used in textile manufacturing according to
11. A fiber with ultraviolet covering effect used in textile manufacturing according to
12. A fiber with ultraviolet covering effect used in textile manufacturing according to
13. A fiber with ultraviolet covering effect used in textile manufacturing according to
14. A fiber with ultraviolet covering effect used in textile manufacturing according to
15. A fiber with ultraviolet covering effect used in textile manufacturing according to
16. The inorganic metal particles according to
17. The inorganic titatinium metal particles according to
18. The inorganic metal particles according to
19. The inorganic titanium metal particle according to
20. The dispersant according to
 This invention discloses a fiber with ultraviolet covering effect use to manufacture textiles. Specifically, this invention discloses fibers, having ultraviolet covering effect use to manufacture textiles, whose filaments are formed by adding inorganic titanium dioxide particles preferably below 1% weight of the total fiber composition. The inorganic titanium dioxide particles have dimensions of preferably less than 100 nm.
 Due to large increase in outdoor activities, the market demand for textiles with ultraviolet covering effect use to produce of various types of sportswear, including sportswear for fishing and golfing have largely increased. Demand for household textiles with ultraviolet covering effect, such as garment, hat gingham and curtains, etc. have also largely increased. Conventional attempts to develop and improve fibers use to manufacture textiles with ultraviolet covering effects have been to increase fiber density or add fluorescent or whiting agents to the fiber filaments. However, increasing fiber density causes poor air permeability and is not suitable for summer textiles, although a higher degree of ultraviolet covering effect protection is needed. The use of fluorescent or whiting agents poses numerous problems. As an example, textiles with fluorescent or whiting agents have demonstrated poor reflection efficiency for ultraviolet rays.
 Other technologies have used ultraviolet reflection agents or/and ultraviolet absorbent agents to insert ultraviolet covering effect protection in textile producing fibers. An ultraviolet reflection agent or ultraviolet absorbent agent can be an inorganic or an organic compound. Because the physical properties of fibers are easily and negatively influenced by the use of organic compound as agents, inorganic compounds are more frequently used. Examples of inorganic ultraviolet reflection and absorbent agents are Titanium Dioxide, Talcum, Kaolin, Zinc Oxide and Ferric Oxide. Titanium Dioxide, which possesses optimal ultraviolet reflection on visible light is frequently used. Similarly, organic compounds with ultraviolet reflection effect on visible light, such as salicylic acid, benzophenone, benzotriazole, cyanoacrylate are often use as ultraviolet absorbent agents.
 Ultraviolet reflection agents and ultraviolet absorbent agents can be directly added to the fibers during the fibers' spinning process, or alternatively directly onto the textile produced from the fiber during post process coating. Adding ultraviolet reflection and/or absorbent agents onto the textile surfaces during post process coating reduces the air permeability of the textile by clogging the textile aperture. Other draw backs associated with using post process coating are that the produced textiles are usually warmer, that is, textiles absorb and accumulate more heat when worn, and the absorbent and/or reflection agents are quickly shed after numerous washing, reducing the ultraviolet covering effect. Therefore, the addition of ultraviolet agents, via post process coating is not strongly recommended.
 Many attempts have been made to develop and improve the covering effect of ultraviolet light in fibers and fabrics produced from said fibers. Japanese Patent Application Laid-Opened No. 5-148734, discloses a fiber structure having ventilation degree exceeding 5 ml/cm2, which contains ultraviolet reflection or absorbent agent with the following results: the ultraviolet penetration of wavelengths between 290-320 nm is below 5%; the ultraviolet penetration of wavelengths between 290-400 nm is below 10%; and the visible light reflectivity of wavelengths between 400-1200 nm is above 60%. Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 5-93343, discloses a core sheath constructing fiber with ultraviolet covering effect containing metal oxide of between 5-40 weight % of the fiber. The Application discloses tatting fabric having covering factor of between 700-1300 nm, knitted fabric having covering factor between 200-500 nm, and an ultraviolet passing percentage of the core cloth produced from the core sheath constructing fiber below 10%. Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 5-186942 discloses a knitted fabric with double-layer construction having surface layer hydrophobic fiber of titter above 1 denier per filament. The lining and contact layers are made with fiber comprising protective inorganic compounds constituting over 3% weight of the layers, which protects against reflective visible light and near infrared ray light sources.
 The three patent applications discussed above disclose technologies for improving fiber ultraviolet covering features by adding metallic compounds constituting between 1% and 40% weight of the fiber and with ultraviolet reflection or absorbent characteristics. Adding large quantities of metallic compounds into a textile producing fibers, as proposed by the Japanese Laid-Opened patent applications, reduce spinning productivity and fiber strength and result in the formation of tinct yellow fibers. Besides having metallic compounds expressed uncontrollably on the fibers surfaces, using large quantities of metallic compounds will affect thread routing machines doing the weaving and finishing stages of the fiber/textile manufacturing process. In essence, using large quantities of metallic compounds will greatly reduce the life span of the fibers produced, and increase manufacturing cost.
 To resolve some of the problems associated with the Japanese laid-open patent applications and other problems associated with traditional methods for creating ultraviolet covering effect in fibers, the inventor discovered that by adding inorganic titanium metal particles having average particle diameter preferably less than 100 nm and potassium tripolyphosphate into textile producing fibers, results in the following: (1) increased the distribution area of the fibers; (2) avoided the cohesion phenomena associated with using titanium dioxide metal particle alone; (3) increased distinctly the ultraviolet reflection effect; (4) improved spinning productivity; (5) improved fiber stress; (6) improved fiber tinct; (6) improved fiber abradability; and (7) protected processing machines during threading and weaving of the fabric.
 Consequently, it is an object of this invention to manufacture fibers, use in textile production, with ultraviolet covering effect, which contains less than 1% weight of inorganic titanium particles with average particle diameter size of preferably less than 100 nm.
 Another object of this invention is to produce fibers having ultraviolet covering effect, which weighs preferably over 50% of fabric produced from said fibers
 Still another object of this invention is to produce fabrics, using the fiber of this invention, having opening or permeability rate exceeding preferably 0.7%, but preferably less than 25%, and having an ultraviolet protection factor of preferably over 40%.
 Finally, it is still an object of this invention to produce fibers, use for producing textiles, having ultraviolet covering protection containing preferably less than 1% weight of inorganic titanium dioxide particles mixed with potassium tripolyphosphate to prevent coagulation of the titanium dioxide metal particles.
 This invention relates to a type of fiber having ultraviolet covering effect use to manufacture textiles for clothings and for producing household textiles, such as garment hat gingham and curtains, etc. The ultraviolet covering effect results from inventing a fiber containing preferably less than 1% weight of inorganic titanium particles having average diameter preferably less than 100 nm.
 When used to manufacture textiles, the fiber of this invention constitutes preferably over 50% weight of textiles, produces textiles having permeability rate preferably exceeding 0.7% but preferably less than 25% and produces textiles having ultraviolet protection factor of preferably over 40%. Finally, the fiber of this invention with ultraviolet covering protection contains preferably less than 1% un coagulated titanium dioxide metal particles obtained by mixing the inorganic titanium particles with potassium tripolyphosphate.
 To obtain fibers having ultraviolet covering effect use for manufacturing textiles, this invention advances its proven concept of adding to the fibers' composition inorganic titanium dioxide metal particles having average dimensions of about 100 mn. The addition of titanium dioxide enhances resistant to ultraviolet light while increasing the overall surface area of the fibers thereby increasing permeability or opening rate of textiles manufactured from said fiber filaments.
 Other advantages of having inorganic titanium metal particles are reduction in feed rate during production due to increase fiber surface area, reduction in overall manufacturing cost as feed rate is increased, improved spinning productivity, enhanced fiber strength, enhanced fiber tinct, improved abradability and improved threading and routing processes. The criticality of adding titanium dioxide particles constituting preferably below 1% weight of a total fiber is immense. Having fibers with titanium dioxide particles of weight percentage above 1 would most certainly result in the loss of or drastic reduction in the ultraviolet covering effect in textiles after repeated washing.
 The manner in which the titanium dioxide particles are added to the fibers affects their ability to maintain its ultraviolet covering effect and may affect the overall quality of textiles manufacture from said fiber filaments. To avoid phenomenon such as the wash effect—removal of the ultraviolet covering effect due to repeated washing—the preferred method of adding the titanium dioxide to the fibers is directly, rather than post process coating. Direct addition of the titanium dioxide particles can occur at the polymerization stage of the fiber production process or the spinning stage with essentially identical results. However, whether the metal particles are added during the polymerization process stage or the spinning process stage avoiding coagulation of the titanium dioxide particles is paramount. The presence of coagulated titanium particles doing processing will most certainly impact the spinning productivity and will most certainly reduce the distribution area of the metal particles in the fibers thereby reducing the overall ultraviolet covering effect. Therefore, to prevent coagulation of the titanium dioxide metal particles, a dispersant such as potassium tripolyphosphate is added to the titanium particles by preparing a titanium dioxide/potassium tripolyphosphate sub-solution.
 It is well known in the art that ultraviolet covering effect is influenced by the textile composition and the thickness of the textile. Tightly woven textiles have lower air permeability or opening rate. The thicker the texture, the better the ultraviolet covering effect. Because fabrics with ultraviolet covering effect are mostly desired and used during the summer season, the degree of textile permeability and thickness will greatly influence the degree of textile comfort when worn. To increase the comfort level of fabrics with ultraviolet covering effect, a cross model Y, W allotype sectional spinneret can be used during the spinning stage of the fiber production. The guiding gutter and the large surface area of the allotype section fiber can be utilized to make fabric having ultraviolet covering effect and fabric with the ability to absorb moisture while providing enhanced perspiration. Such fabrics will be suitable especially for summer activities.
 Because Ultraviolet Protective Factor (UPF) determines the degree of ultraviolet covering effect in textiles, this invention looks to the AS/NZS 4399, 1996 Sun Protective Clothing Evaluation and Classification Standard for guidance. The Ultraviolet Protective Factor value and ultraviolet covering effect in AS/NZS 4399,1996 Sun Protective Clothing Evaluation Classification Standard revealed the following results: when UPF is between 25-39, the ultraviolet covering effect is considered very good; and when UPF is between 40-50 or above 50, the ultraviolet covering effect is considered excellent. The following methods for measuring ultraviolet protective factor, textile opening rate and yarn abradability were partly used to assess the reliability of the inventive findings:
 1. LUPF value menstruation:
 Measured with AS/NZS 4399:1996 standard.
 2. Textile opening rate menstruation:
 The measurement of the opening rate using a light microscopic having magnification between 10-15 comprised the following steps: placing a light source inside the textile to be measured to make the textile transparent; taking a microscopic photograph of the transparent textile; and calculating the percentage of the total area of the white section with respect to the total area of the textile—the percentage of the white section is the opening rate of the textile.
 3. Yarn abradability menstruation:
 The measurement of the yarn abradability comprised the following steps: Grinding the yarn to be measured with copper wire having dimensions of 0.25 mm linear diameter, under a tension of 0.5 gm/denier, and at a rate of 300 m/minutes; and recording the passing length of the yarn when the copper wire is grinded and ruptured by the yarn. The longer it takes the yarn to pass through, the more uncertain the measured abradibility of the yarn is.
 By way of examples of exploitation, the manufacturing processes, conditions and process components, though not limited to the exploitations, of the present invention may be as follows:
 Adding to the fiber material polyester particles inorganic titanium dioxide metal particles, with ultraviolet reflection, effect having the following parameters: particles with diameter less than 100 nm and constituting 0.5% of the total fiber; and particles with diameter exceeding 0.3 micro meters or 300 nm and constituting 0.4% weight of the fiber. Conducting spinning at a temperature of 290° C. and at a spinning velocity of 3000 m/minute to produce Partially Oriented Yarn (POY). False twisting the POY at a speed of 600 m/minute to produce Draw Textured Yarn (DTY) with ultraviolet covering effect.
 Similar to implementation example 1, the working conditions include spinning and false twisting to produce DTY with ultraviolet covering effect, but inorganic titanium dioxide metal particles of average particle diameter less than 100 nm is added constituting 0.9% weight of the fiber.
 Similar to implementation example 1, the working conditions include spinning and false twisting to produce DTY with ultraviolet covering effect, but inorganic titanium dioxide metal particles of average particle diameter exceeding 0.3 micrometers or 300 nm is added constituting 0.9% weight percent of the fiber.
 Similar to implementation example 1, the working conditions include spinning and false twisting to produce DTY with ultraviolet covering effect, but only inorganic titanium dioxide metal particles with average particle diameter over 0.3 micrometers is added into the used polyester particles. The addition percentage constitutes 1.6% weight of the total fiber.
 [Evaluation Result]
 The DTY with ultraviolet covering effect produced according to implementation example 1, implementation example 2, comparison example 1 and comparison example 2 whose specification size is 75 denier has the following properties: size is 75 denier; the strip number is 72; considering the wrap DTY form; the filling use is 75 denier * 72 DTY; tatting 1/1 texture, warp density is 112 strip/inch; filling density is 112 strip/inch; the code weight is 92g/m2; cloth thickness is 0.28 mm; and the fabric opening is 10.6%.
 The DTY with ultraviolet covering effect produced according to implementation example 1, implementation example 2, comparison example 1 and comparison example 2 whose specification size is 150 denier has the following properties: size is 150 denier; strip number is 144; 22G PK knitted; code weight is 220 g/m2; cloth thickness is 1.0 mm; and textile opening rate is 5.3%.
 From above experimental results the larger the fabric opening rate, the poorer the ultraviolet covering effect. When the fabric opening rate is large, inorganic titanium dioxide metal particles having average particle diameter less than 100 nm can be added to the fiber below 1.0% weight of the total fiber to provide ultraviolet reflection effect, and the fiber can be use to produce fabrics with ultraviolet covering effect. UPF of fabrics having inorganic titanium dioxide with average particle diameter of less than 100 nm is apparently superior than similar percentage weight addition of titanium dioxide particles having average particle diameter greater than 0.3 micrometer or 300 nm. For fabrics containing inorganic titanium dioxide metal particles greater than 0.3 micrometers to have similar ultraviolet reflection and covering effect as fabrics containing inorganic titanium dioxide metal particles less than 100 nm, the addition rate of the 0.3 micrometers fibers has to be increased. However, the increase in addition levels of the latter will most certainly cause poor abradability, most certainly hamper otherwise easy abrasion of thread processing route, most certainly result in short fabric life and will most certainly result in overall bad product quality.