|Veröffentlichungsdatum||4. Dez. 2008|
|Eingetragen||29. Mai 2007|
|Prioritätsdatum||29. Mai 2007|
|Auch veröffentlicht unter||US7464690|
|Veröffentlichungsnummer||11754402, 754402, US 2008/0295798 A1, US 2008/295798 A1, US 20080295798 A1, US 20080295798A1, US 2008295798 A1, US 2008295798A1, US-A1-20080295798, US-A1-2008295798, US2008/0295798A1, US2008/295798A1, US20080295798 A1, US20080295798A1, US2008295798 A1, US2008295798A1|
|Erfinder||Rolf D. Reitz, Yong Sun|
|Ursprünglich Bevollmächtigter||Reitz Rolf D, Yong Sun|
|Zitat exportieren||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenziert von (7), Klassifizierungen (10), Juristische Ereignisse (3)|
|Externe Links: USPTO, USPTO-Zuordnung, Espacenet|
This invention was made with United States government support awarded by the following agencies:
U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Grant No.: DE-FC26-06NT42628 The United States has certain rights in this invention.
This document concerns an invention relating generally to methods and devices for reducing emissions from internal combustion engines, and more specifically to methods and apparata for reducing soot and NOx emissions from internal combustion engines (and in particular diesel engines).
Common pollutants arising from the use of internal combustion engines are nitrogen oxides (commonly denoted NOx) and particulate matter (also known simply as “soot”). NOx is generally associated with high-temperature engine conditions, and may be reduced by use of measures such as exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), wherein the engine intake air is diluted with relatively inert exhaust gas (generally after cooling the exhaust gas). This reduces the oxygen in the combustion regime and reduces the maximum combustion temperature, thereby deterring NOx formation. Soot includes a variety of matter such as elemental carbon, heavy hydrocarbons, hydrated sulfuric acid, and other large molecules, and are generally associated with non-optimal combustion. Soot can be reduced by increasing combustion and/or exhaust temperatures, or by providing more oxygen to promote oxidation of the soot particles. Unfortunately, measures which reduce NOx tend to increase soot emissions, and measures which reduce soot tend to increase NOx emissions, resulting in what is often termed the “soot-NOx tradeoff”.
At the time of this writing, the diesel engine industry is facing stringent emissions legislation in the United States, and is struggling to find methods to meet government-imposed NOx and soot restrictions. One measure under consideration is use of exhaust after-treatment (e.g., particulate traps) for soot emissions control in both heavy-duty truck and automotive diesel engines. However, in order to meet mandated durability standards (e.g., 50,000 to 100,000 miles), the soot trapped must be periodically re-burned. This requires considerable expense and complexity, particularly since additional fuel must often be mixed and ignited in the exhaust stream in order to burn off the accumulated soot deposits.
Apart from studies directed to after-treatment, there has also been intense interest in the more fundamental issue of how to reduce NOx and soot generation from the combustion process. Studies in this area relate to shaping combustion chambers and/or modifying the timing, rate, and/or shape of the fuel injection to attain desired effects. One field of study relates to injection premixing methodologies, wherein the object is to attain more complete mixing of fuel and air in order to simultaneously reduce soot and NOx emissions. In diesel engines, the object of premixing methodologies is to move away from the diffusion burning mechanism which drives diesel combustion, and instead attempt to attain premixed burning. In diffusion burning, the oxidant (fuel) is provided to the oxidizer (air) with mixing and combustion occurring simultaneously. The fuel droplets within an injected spray plume have an outer reaction zone surrounding a fuel core which diminishes in size as it is consumed, and high soot production occurs within the fuel-rich spray core. In contrast, premixed burning mixes fuel and air prior to burning, and the more thorough mixing results in less soot production. Premixing may be performed by a number of different measures, such as by use off fumigation (injection of vaporized fuel into the intake airstream prior to its entry into the engine), and/or direct injection of a fuel charge relatively far before top dead center (TDC) so that piston motion and convection within the cylinder, in combination with the relatively long period of time before TDC (and ignition), result in greater mixing.
One promising diesel premixing technology of this nature is HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition), which has the objective of causing initial ignition of a lean, highly premixed air-fuel mixture at or near top dead center (TDC). An extensive discussion on HCCI and similar premixing techniques is provided in U.S. Pat. No. 6,230,683 to zur Loye et al., and U.S. Pat. No. 5,832,880 to Dickey and U.S. Pat. No. 6,213,086 to Chmela et al. also contain useful background information. The charge is said to be “homogeneous” in HCCI because it is (at least theoretically) highly and evenly mixed with the air in the cylinder. Ignition is then initiated by auto ignition, i.e., thermodynamic ignition via compression heating. The objective off HCCI is to use auto ignition of the lean and homogeneous fuel-air mixture to provide a uniform non-diffusion (or minimized diffusion) burn, resulting in significantly lower combustion chamber temperatures and diminished NOx production (which thrives at high temperature), as well as lower soot production owing to enhanced mixing and the resulting reduction or elimination of fuel-rich regions. In contrast, a richer mixture (such as that necessary for flame propagation from the spark in an SI engine) will burn more quickly at greater temperature, and therefore may result in greater NOx production.
Another example of a methodology for modifying fuel injection to attain desired combustion results is presented in U.S. Pat. No. 6,526,939 to Reitz et al., wherein multiple injections are used during an engine cycle rather than a single injection(preferably starting at or near the end of the compression stroke), and wherein successive injections experience an increase in the injection pressure (injection rate) and a decrease in the fuel volume injected. This injection scheme is described as promoting lower emissions, possibly owing to better mixing and/or owing to a more controlled heat release from the injected fuel (and thus lower peak temperatures and lower NOx production). Further emissions reductions can be attained with use of EGR or other exhaust after-treatment methodologies.
Despite the advances offered by the foregoing methods, it would be useful to have additional and/or improved emissions reduction methods available, particularly in view of the ever-increasing need for decreased emissions.
The invention involves fuel injection methods which assist in the reduction of undesirable emissions (e.g., NOx and soot emissions), particularly in diesel engines. To give the reader a basic understanding of some of the advantageous features of the invention, following is a brief summary of preferred versions of the injection methods, with reference being made to the accompanying drawings to assist with the reader's understanding. Since this is merely a summary, it should be understood that more details regarding the preferred versions maybe found in the Detailed Description set forth elsewhere in this document. The claims set forth at the end of this document then define the various versions of the invention in which exclusive rights are secured.
Referring to the accompanying
Referring initially to A and B, fuel is injected during one or more low load injections 100A/100B occurring between the start of the intake stroke and the end of the compression stroke, and which have low injection pressure (preferably less than approximately 50 MPa, with 2-25 MPa injection pressures being most preferred). This injection also preferably occurs (or these injections preferably occur) between the start of the intake stroke (immediately after top dead center) and approximately 40 degrees before top dead center during the compression stroke, with injection timing and injected fuel volume being such that HCCI-type conditions are promoted, i.e., the fuel is highly premixed with the air within the combustion chamber 14 to provide a more homogeneous (and lean) fuel-air charge within the chamber 14. One possible low engine load injection scheme is shown at A in
Referring to C and D, a two-stage injection scheme is used over a range of greater engine loads. One or more starting greater load injections 102C/102D are initially made between the start of the intake stroke and the end of the compression stroke, and these are followed by one or more ending greater load injections 104C/104D which occur prior to the end of the expansion stroke. The starting greater load injections 102C/102D, like the low load injections 100A/100B, are intended to create a lean and highly premixed fuel-air charge within the combustion chamber 14. The ending greater load injections 104C/104D are intended to utilize the remaining air within the chamber 14 and generate further work output, while at the same time maintaining combustion and heat release at a controlled rate, avoiding potentially damaging rapid chamber pressure increases, and avoiding the temperature extremes that give rise to NOx production, as well as avoiding the soot that accompanies uneven fuel/air distribution within the chamber 14.
The starting greater load injections 102C/102D may resemble the low load injections 100A/100B, and preferably occur between the start of the intake stroke and approximately 40 degrees before top dead center during the compression stroke. More preferably, the starting greater load injections 102C/102D occur between the start of the intake stroke and the middle of the compression stroke. Where multiple starting greater load injections 102D are used (as at D in
The ending greater load injections 104C/104D preferably occur after approximately 90 degrees before top dead center during the compression stroke (i.e., midway through compression), and before approximately 90 degrees after top dead center during the expansion stroke (i.e., midway through expansion). Preferably, they begin at or closely adjacent the end of the compression stroke to enhance power output. Each ending greater load injection 104C/104D has higher injection pressure than any of the starting greater load injections 102C/102D (preferably greater than approximately 50 MPa and most preferably above approximately 100 MPa), and lower injected fuel volume than the total injected fuel volume of all starting greater load injections 102C/102D. Additionally, the total injected fuel volume of all ending greater load injections 104C/104D is preferably less than the total injected fuel volume of all starting greater load injections 102C/102D.
As illustrated at D in
Optionally, the fuel injection scheme may again be altered at the highest range of loads handled by the engine in question. As illustrated at E in
The foregoing methodology may include an additional injection 110 which is periodically made for purposes of regenerating exhaust gas after-treatment catalysts in any exhaust after-treatment device provided downstream from the engine, e.g., Lean NOx Traps (LNTs) and/or Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs). Preferably, this additional regeneration injection 110 is provided as one or more injections having low pressure and low fuel volume, and which are made during the expansion stroke or thereafter, most preferably after the middle of the expansion stroke so that the fuel is well-mixed with exhaust gases for expulsion during the exhaust stroke. If multiple injections are used, successive injections preferably decrease in pressure, again so that the injections achieve good penetration within the cylinder (and subsequently have good mixing), while at the same time having little or no impingement on the walls of the combustion chamber 14. Since after-treatment catalysts only periodically require regeneration, the regeneration injections 110 need not occur every cycle, and can occasionally be made during spaced (non-adjacent) engine cycles.
Beneficially, the foregoing methodology can be implemented in existing engines by modifying their injection systems to accommodate injection at multiple injection pressures during an engine cycle, e.g., by incorporating devices such as intensifier pistons into a common injection rail so that injection pressure can be stepped up when desired, and/or by incorporating multiple rails and/or pressure reservoirs, each having a different pressure.
Further advantages, features, and objects of the invention will be apparent from the remainder of this document in conjunction with the associated drawings.
Expanding on the foregoing discussion, it should be understood that the injection curves of
While the foregoing injection methodology could be implemented by two or more injectors 20 within the combustion chamber 14, with each injector 20 supplying fuel at its own discrete pressure (e.g., looking to C in
It is emphasized that the injection curves of
It should be understood that the versions of the invention described above are merely exemplary, and the invention is not intended to be limited to these versions. Rather, the scope of rights to the invention is limited only by the claims set out below, and the invention encompasses all different versions that fall literally or equivalently within the scope of these claims.
|Zitiert von Patent||Eingetragen||Veröffentlichungsdatum||Antragsteller||Titel|
|US8165779 *||19. Dez. 2008||24. Apr. 2012||Ford Global Technologies, Llc||Cascade control of HCCI phasing|
|US8387587 *||16. Febr. 2011||5. März 2013||Hitachi Automotive Systems, Ltd.||Control unit for direct injection engine|
|US8544444 *||29. März 2010||1. Okt. 2013||Mazda Motor Corporation||Control of direct fuel injection engine|
|US20090164100 *||19. Dez. 2008||25. Juni 2009||Ford Global Technologies, Llc||Cascade control of hcci phasing|
|US20100242900 *||30. Sept. 2010||Mazda Motor Corporation||Control of direct fuel injection engine|
|US20110226214 *||22. Sept. 2011||Hitachi Automotive Systems, Ltd.||Control Unit for Direct Injection Engine|
|US20140000568 *||7. Juni 2013||2. Jan. 2014||Mazda Motor Corporation||Fuel injection device of direct injection engine|
|Unternehmensklassifikation||Y02T10/44, F02D41/3035, F02D41/402, F02D41/3836, F02M45/02|
|Europäische Klassifikation||F02D41/30C2D, F02D41/40D, F02D41/38C6|
|10. Okt. 2007||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, DISTRICT OF CO
Free format text: CONFIRMATORY LICENSE;ASSIGNOR:UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN, THE;REEL/FRAME:019944/0548
Effective date: 20070730
|30. Mai 2012||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|28. Jan. 2014||AS||Assignment|
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:REITZ, ROLF;SUN, YONG;SIGNING DATES FROM 20090527 TO 20090814;REEL/FRAME:032067/0162
Owner name: WISCONSIN ALUMNI RESEARCH FOUNDATION, WISCONSIN