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  1. Erweiterte Patentsuche
VeröffentlichungsnummerUS20110082045 A1
PublikationstypAnmeldung
AnmeldenummerUS 12/896,870
Veröffentlichungsdatum7. Apr. 2011
Eingetragen2. Okt. 2010
Prioritätsdatum2. Okt. 2009
Auch veröffentlicht unterCA2779609A1, CN102714216A, CN102714216B, EP2483927A1, EP2483927A4, US8609593, US9431156, US9472324, US20110082042, US20140336053, US20140364319, US20160351303, WO2011041763A2, WO2011041763A3, WO2011041764A1
Veröffentlichungsnummer12896870, 896870, US 2011/0082045 A1, US 2011/082045 A1, US 20110082045 A1, US 20110082045A1, US 2011082045 A1, US 2011082045A1, US-A1-20110082045, US-A1-2011082045, US2011/0082045A1, US2011/082045A1, US20110082045 A1, US20110082045A1, US2011082045 A1, US2011082045A1
ErfinderDouglas J. Gilbert
Ursprünglich BevollmächtigterGilbert Douglas J
Zitat exportierenBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
Externe Links: USPTO, USPTO-Zuordnung, Espacenet
Extremely low resistance materials and methods for modifying and creating same
US 20110082045 A1
Zusammenfassung
In some implementations of the invention, existing extremely low resistance materials (“ELR materials”) may be modified and/or new ELR materials may be created by enhancing (in the case of existing ELR materials) and/or creating (in the case of new ELR materials) an aperture within the ELR material such that the aperture is maintained at increased temperatures so as not to impede propagation of electrical charge there through. In some implementations of the invention, as long as the propagation of electrical charge through the aperture remains unimpeded, the material should remain in an ELR state; otherwise, as the propagation of electrical charge through the aperture becomes impeded, the ELR material begins to transition into a non-ELR state.
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Ansprüche(48)
1. A composition of matter comprising:
an ELR material having a crystalline structure with an aperture formed therein, wherein the aperture facilitates propagation of electrical charge through the crystalline structure in an ELR state; and
a modifying material bonded to the ELR material to thereby maintain the aperture of the ELR material so that the composition has an improved operating characteristic over that of the ELR material without the modifying material.
2. The composition of claim 1, wherein the ELR material without the modifying material has a first transition temperature and wherein the composition has a transition temperature greater than the first transition temperature.
3. The composition of claim 1, wherein the improved operating characteristic is an increased transition temperature of the composition relative to that of the ELR material without the modifying material.
4. The composition of claim 1, wherein the improved operating characteristic is a lower resistance of the composition at a given temperature relative to that of the ELR material without the modifying material.
5. The composition of claim 1, wherein the improved operating characteristic is an improved magnetic property of the composition relative to that of the ELR material without the modifying material.
6. The composition of claim 1, wherein the improved operating characteristic is an improved mechanical property of the composition relative to that of the ELR material without the modifying material.
7. The composition of claim 1, wherein atoms of the modifying material are bonded to atoms in the crystalline structure of the ELR material.
8. The composition of claim 7, wherein atoms of the modifying material are bonded to aperture atoms of the crystalline structure of the ELR material.
9. The composition of claim 7, wherein atoms of the modifying material are bonded to non-aperture atoms of the crystalline structure of the ELR material.
10. The composition of claim 1, wherein the modifying material is an oxygen bonding conductive material.
11. The composition of claim 10, wherein the modifying material is selected from the group consisting of: chromium, copper, bismuth, cobalt, vanadium, titanium, rhodium, beryllium.
12. The composition of claim 1, wherein the ELR material is a mixed-valence copper-oxide perovskite material.
13. The composition of claim 10, wherein the ELR material is a mixed-valence copper-oxide perovskite material.
14. The composition of claim 11, wherein the ELR material is a mixed-valence copper-oxide perovskite material.
15. The composition of claim 1, wherein the ELR material is a iron pnictide material.
16. The composition of claim 10, wherein the ELR material is a iron pnictide material.
17. The composition of claim 11, wherein the ELR material is a iron pnictide material.
18. The composition of claim 1, wherein the ELR material is magnesium diboride.
19. The composition of claim 10, wherein the ELR material is magnesium diboride.
20. The composition of claim 11, wherein the ELR material is magnesium diboride.
21. The composition of claim 3, wherein the increased transition temperature of at least a portion of the composition is greater than a particular temperature, wherein the particular temperature is one of the following temperatures: 200K, 210K, 220K, 230K, 240K, 250K, 260K, 270K, 280K, 290K, 300K, or 310K.
22. The composition of claim 1, wherein the aperture has a cross-section ranging in size from 0.200 nm to 1.000 nm.
23. An ELR material having a transition temperature to an ELR state, the transition temperature greater than 250K.
24. The ELR material of claim 23, wherein the transition temperature is greater than one of the following temperatures: 260K, 270K, 280K, 290K, 300K, or 310K.
25. The ELR material of claim 23, wherein the ELR material has a crystalline structure with apertures formed therein, at least one of the apertures maintained at a temperature greater than or equal to the transition temperature, the at least one of the apertures propagating electric charge through the crystalline structure in the ELR state.
26. The ELR material of claim 24, wherein the ELR material has a crystalline structure with apertures formed therein, at least one of the apertures maintained at a temperature greater than or equal to the transition temperature, the at least one of the apertures propagating electric charge through the crystalline structure in the ELR state.
27. A method comprising:
layering a modifying material with an ELR material to form a modified ELR material, the ELR material having a crystalline structure with at least one aperture formed therein, wherein the at least one aperture facilitates propagation of electrical charge through the crystalline structure in an ELR state, and wherein the modified ELR material has an aperture that is maintained at temperatures greater than the at least one aperture of the ELR material.
28. The method of claim 27, wherein the modifying material is layered onto the ELR material.
29. The method of claim 28, wherein the modifying material is deposited onto the ELR material.
30. The method of clam 27, wherein the ELR material is layered onto the modifying material.
31. The method of claim 30, wherein the ELR material is deposited onto the modifying material.
32. The method of claim 28, wherein the ELR material is bonded to the modifying material.
33. The method of claim 30, wherein the ELR material is bonded to the modifying material.
34. The method of claim 28, wherein atoms on a face of the ELR material are bonded to atoms of the modifying material.
35. The method of claim 34, wherein the face is parallel to an ab-plane of the ELR material.
36. The method of claim 35, wherein the face is parallel to an a-plane of the ELR material.
37. The method of claim 35, wherein the face is parallel to a b-plane of the ELR material.
38. The method of claim 30, wherein atoms on a face of the ELR material are bonded to atoms of the modifying material.
39. The method of claim 38, wherein the face is parallel to an ab-plane of the ELR material.
40. The method of claim 39, wherein the face is parallel to an a-plane of the ELR material.
41. The method of claim 39, wherein the face is parallel to a b-plane of the ELR material.
42. The method of claim 27, wherein the at least one aperture and the aperture each have a cross-section ranging in size from 0.200 nm to 1.000 nm.
43. The method of claim 27, wherein the ELR material is a superconducting material.
44. The method of claim 43, wherein the ELR material is a mixed-valence copper-oxide perovskite material.
45. The method of claim 43, wherein the ELR material is an iron pnictide material.
46. The method of claim 43, wherein the ELR material is magnesium diboride.
47. A method comprising:
maintaining an aperture formed within a crystalline structure of an ELR material in an ELR state at temperatures greater than 250K.
48. The method of claim 44, wherein the temperature is one of the following temperatures: 260K, 270K, 280K, 290K, 300K, or 310K.
Beschreibung
    CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • [0001]
    This application claims priority to U.S. Provisional Application No. 61/248,130, entitled “High Temperature Extremely Low Resistance Materials and Methods for Modifying or Creating Same,” filed on Oct. 2, 2009, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.
  • FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • [0002]
    The invention is generally related to materials with extremely low resistance (“ELR”) materials, and more particularly to modifying existing ELR materials and/or creating new ELR materials that operate with improved operating characteristics.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • [0003]
    Ongoing research attempts to achieve new materials with improved operational characteristics, for example, reduced electrical resistance at higher temperatures over existing materials, including superconducting materials. Scientists have theorized a possible existence of a “perfect conductor,” or a material that operates with extremely low resistance but that may not necessarily demonstrate all the conventionally accepted characteristics of a superconducting material.
  • [0004]
    Notwithstanding their name, conventional high temperature superconducting (“HTS”) materials still operate at very low temperatures. In fact, most commonly used HTS materials still require use of a cooling system that uses liquids with very low boiling points (e.g., liquid nitrogen). Such cooling systems increase implementation costs and discourage widespread commercial and consumer use and/or application of such materials.
  • [0005]
    What is needed are ELR materials, including superconducting materials, with improved operating characteristics; mechanisms for modifying known ELR materials so that the modified materials operate with improved operating characteristics; and/or techniques for designing and fabricating new ELR materials.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0006]
    The accompanying drawings, which are included to provide a further understanding of the invention and are incorporated in and constitute a part of this specification, illustrate various exemplary implementations of the invention and together with the detailed description serve to explain various principles and/or aspects of the invention.
  • [0007]
    FIG. 1 illustrates a crystalline structure of an exemplary ELR material as viewed from a first perspective.
  • [0008]
    FIG. 2 illustrates a crystalline structure of an exemplary ELR material as viewed from a second perspective.
  • [0009]
    FIG. 3 illustrates a crystalline structure of an exemplary ELR material as viewed from a second perspective.
  • [0010]
    FIG. 4 illustrates a conceptual mechanical model of a crystalline structure of an ELR material.
  • [0011]
    FIG. 5 illustrates a conceptual mechanical model of an improved crystalline structure, according to various implementations of the invention, of an ELR material.
  • [0012]
    FIG. 6 illustrates a conceptual mechanical model of an improved crystalline structure, according to various implementations of the invention, of an ELR material.
  • [0013]
    FIG. 7 illustrates a conceptual mechanical model of an improved crystalline structure, according to various implementations of the invention, of an exemplary ELR material.
  • [0014]
    FIG. 8 illustrates a conceptual mechanical model of an improved crystalline structure, according to various implementations of the invention, of an ELR material.
  • [0015]
    FIG. 9 illustrates a conceptual mechanical model of an improved crystalline structure, according to various implementations of the invention, of an ELR material.
  • [0016]
    FIG. 10 illustrates a modified crystalline structure, according to various implementations of the invention, of an ELR material as viewed from a second perspective.
  • [0017]
    FIG. 11 illustrates a modified crystalline structure, according to various implementations of the invention, of an ELR material as viewed from a first perspective.
  • [0018]
    FIG. 12 is a flowchart for producing a modified material from an ELR material according to various implementations of the invention.
  • [0019]
    FIGS. 13A-13J illustrate preparing a modified ELR material according to various implementations of the invention.
  • [0020]
    FIG. 14 is a flowchart for depositing a modifying material onto an ELR material according to various implementations of the invention.
  • [0021]
    FIG. 15 illustrates a test bed useful for determining various operational characteristics of a modified ELR material according to various implementations of the invention.
  • [0022]
    FIGS. 16A-16G illustrate test results demonstrating various operational characteristics of a modified ELR material.
  • [0023]
    FIG. 17 illustrates a crystalline structure of an exemplary ELR material as viewed from a second perspective.
  • [0024]
    FIG. 18 illustrates a crystalline structure of an exemplary ELR material as viewed from a second perspective.
  • [0025]
    FIG. 19 illustrates a crystalline structure of an exemplary ELR material as viewed from a second perspective.
  • [0026]
    FIG. 20 illustrates an arrangement of an ELR material and a modifying material useful for propagating electrical charge according to various implementations of the invention.
  • [0027]
    FIG. 21 illustrates a single unit cell of an exemplary ELR material.
  • [0028]
    FIG. 22 illustrates a crystalline structure of an exemplary ELR material as viewed from a second perspective.
  • [0029]
    FIG. 23 illustrates multiple layers of crystalline structures of an exemplary surface-modified ELR material according to various implementations of the invention.
  • [0030]
    FIG. 24 illustrates test results demonstrating various operational characteristics of a modified ELR material, namely with chromium as a modifying material and YBCO as an ELR material, in accordance with various implementations of the invention.
  • [0031]
    FIG. 25 illustrates test results demonstrating various operational characteristics of a modified ELR material, namely with vanadium as a modifying material and YBCO as an ELR material, in accordance with various implementations of the invention.
  • [0032]
    FIG. 26 illustrates test results demonstrating various operational characteristics of a modified ELR material, namely with bismuth as a modifying material and YBCO as an ELR material, in accordance with various implementations of the invention.
  • [0033]
    FIG. 27 illustrates test results demonstrating various operational characteristics of a modified ELR material, namely with copper as a modifying material and YBCO as an ELR material, in accordance with various implementations of the invention.
  • [0034]
    FIG. 28 illustrates test results demonstrating various operational characteristics of a modified ELR material, namely with cobalt as a modifying material and YBCO as an ELR material, in accordance with various implementations of the invention.
  • [0035]
    FIG. 29 illustrates test results demonstrating various operational characteristics of a modified ELR material, namely with titanium as a modifying material and YBCO as an ELR material, in accordance with various implementations of the invention.
  • [0036]
    FIG. 30 illustrates a crystalline structure of an exemplary ELR material as viewed from a third perspective.
  • [0037]
    FIG. 31 illustrates a reference frame useful for describing various implementations of the invention.
  • [0038]
    FIG. 32 illustrates a crystalline structure of an exemplary ELR material as viewed from a second perspective.
  • [0039]
    FIG. 33 illustrates a crystalline structure of an exemplary ELR material as viewed from a second perspective.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • [0040]
    Generally speaking, various implementations of the invention relate to modifying existing ELR materials and/or forming new ELR materials by enhancing (in the case of existing ELR materials) and/or creating (in the case of new ELR materials) an aperture within the ELR material so that the modified or new ELR material exhibits improved operating characteristics, which may include, but are not limited to, operating in an extremely low resistance state (including, for example, a superconducting state) at higher temperatures, operating with increased charge carrying capacity at the same (or higher) temperatures, operating with improved magnetic properties, operating with improved mechanical properties, and/or other improved operating characteristics. As will be described in further detail below, for purposes of this description, ELR materials comprise: superconducting materials, including HTS materials; perfectly conducting materials (e.g., perfect conductors); and other conductive materials with extremely low resistance.
  • [0041]
    In some implementations of the invention, a composition of matter comprises a material comprising a first plurality of atoms; and a modifying material comprising at least one second atom bonded to at least one of the first plurality of atoms such that the composition operates in an ELR state at a temperature greater than that of the material alone or without the modifying material.
  • [0042]
    In some implementations of the invention, a composition of matter comprises a material comprising a first plurality of atoms, at least some of the first plurality of atoms forming an aperture within the material; and a modifying material comprising at least one second atom bonded to at least one of the first plurality of atoms such that the composition maintains the aperture so that composition operates in an ELR state at a temperature greater than that of the material without the modifying material.
  • [0043]
    In some implementations of the invention, a composition of matter comprises a material comprising a first plurality of atoms, at least some of the first plurality of atoms forming an aperture within the material; and a modifying material comprising at least one second atom bonded to at least one of the first plurality of atoms such that the composition maintains the aperture so that the aperture operates in an ELR state at a temperature greater than that of the material without the modifying material.
  • [0044]
    In some implementations of the invention, a composition of matter comprises a material comprising a first plurality of atoms, at least some of the first plurality of atoms forming an aperture within the material, the aperture maintained at a first temperature; and a modifying material comprising at least one second atom bonded to at least one of the first plurality of atoms such that the aperture is maintained at a second temperature greater than the first temperature.
  • [0045]
    In some implementations of the invention, a composition of matter comprises a material comprising a first plurality of atoms arranged in a crystalline structure, the crystalline structure having an aperture formed therein; and a modifying material comprising a plurality of second atoms bonded to the crystalline structure of the material such that the aperture is maintained at a temperature greater than that of the material alone or without the modifying material.
  • [0046]
    In some implementations of the invention, a composition of matter comprises a material comprising a plurality of atoms arranged in a crystalline structure, the atoms selected so as to form an improved aperture within the crystalline structure such that the material operates in an ELR state at temperatures greater than a particular temperature, where the particular temperature is any one of the following temperatures: 200K, 210K, 220K, 230K, 240K, 250K, 260K, 270K, 280K, 290K, 300K, or 310K.
  • [0047]
    In some implementations of the invention, a composition of matter comprises a material comprising a plurality of atoms arranged in a crystalline structure, the atoms selected so as to form an improved aperture within the crystalline structure such that the material operates in a superconducting state at temperatures greater than a particular temperature, where the particular temperature is any one of the following temperatures: 200K, 210K, 220K, 230K, 240K, 250K, 260K, 270K, 280K, 290K, 300K, or 310K.
  • [0048]
    In some implementations of the invention, a composition of matter comprises a material comprising a plurality of atoms arranged in a crystalline structure, the crystalline structure having an aperture formed therein, the aperture remaining sufficiently open at temperatures greater than a particular temperature, where the particular temperature is any one of the following temperatures: 200K, 210K, 220K, 230K, 240K, 250K, 260K, 270K, 280K, 290K, 300K, or 310K. In further implementations of the invention, the composition operates in an ELR state at temperatures greater than the particular temperature.
  • [0049]
    In some implementations of the invention, a composition of matter comprises a material comprising a plurality of atoms arranged in a crystalline structure, the crystalline structure having an aperture formed therein, the aperture remaining unobstructed at temperatures greater than a particular temperature, where the particular temperature is any one of the following temperatures: 200K, 210K, 220K, 230K, 240K, 250K, 260K, 270K, 280K, 290K, 300K, or 310K. In further implementations of the invention, the composition operates in an ELR state at temperatures greater than the particular temperature.
  • [0050]
    In some implementations of the invention, a composition of matter comprises a material comprising a plurality of atoms arranged in a crystalline structure, the crystalline structure having an aperture formed therein, the aperture maintained sufficiently to transport electrical charge at temperatures greater than a particular temperature, where the particular temperature is any one of the following temperatures: 200K, 210K, 220K, 230K, 240K, 250K, 260K, 270K, 280K, 290K, 300K, or 310K. In further implementations of the invention, the composition operates in an ELR state at temperatures greater than the particular temperature.
  • [0051]
    In some implementations of the invention, a composition of matter comprises a material comprising a plurality of atoms arranged in a crystalline structure, the crystalline structure having an aperture formed therein, the aperture maintained sufficiently to facilitate transport of electrical charge at temperatures greater than a particular temperature, where the particular temperature is any one of the following temperatures: 200K, 210K, 220K, 230K, 240K, 250K, 260K, 270K, 280K, 290K, 300K, or 310K. In further implementations of the invention, the composition operates in an ELR state at temperatures greater than the particular temperature.
  • [0052]
    In some implementations of the invention, a composition of matter comprises a material comprising a plurality of atoms arranged in a crystalline structure, the crystalline structure having an aperture formed therein, the aperture maintained sufficiently to propagate current carriers at temperatures greater than a particular temperature, where the particular temperature is any one of the following temperatures: 200K, 210K, 220K, 230K, 240K, 250K, 260K, 270K, 280K, 290K, 300K, or 310K. In further implementations of the invention, the composition operates in an ELR state at temperatures greater than the particular temperature.
  • [0053]
    In some implementations of the invention, a method comprises maintaining an aperture formed within a crystalline structure of an HTS material at temperatures greater than a particular temperature, where the particular temperature is any one of the following temperatures: 200K, 210K, 220K, 230K, 240K, 250K, 260K, 270K, 280K, 290K, 300K, or 310K. In further implementations of the invention, the HTS material operates in a superconducting state at temperatures greater than the particular temperature.
  • [0054]
    In some implementations of the invention, a method comprises maintaining an aperture formed within a crystalline structure of an ELR material at temperatures greater than a particular temperature, where the particular temperature is any one of the following temperatures: 200K, 210K, 220K, 230K, 240K, 250K, 260K, 270K, 280K, 290K, 300K, or 310K. In further implementations of the invention, the ELR material operates in an ELR state at temperatures greater than the particular temperature.
  • [0055]
    In some implementations of the invention, a method comprises forming an aperture within a material, the aperture remaining sufficiently open at temperatures greater than a particular temperature, where the particular temperature is any one of the following temperatures: 200K, 210K, 220K, 230K, 240K, 250K, 260K, 270K, 280K, 290K, 300K, or 310K. In further implementations of the invention, the material operates in an ELR state at temperatures greater than the particular temperature.
  • [0056]
    In some implementations of the invention, a method comprises forming an aperture within a material, the aperture facilitating transport of electrical charge at temperatures greater than a particular temperature, where the particular temperature is any one of the following temperatures: 200K, 210K, 220K, 230K, 240K, 250K, 260K, 270K, 280K, 290K, 300K, or 310K. In further implementations of the invention, the material operates in an ELR state at temperatures greater than the particular temperature.
  • [0057]
    In some implementations of the invention, a method comprises forming an aperture within a material, the aperture transporting electrical charge at temperatures greater than a particular temperature, where the particular temperature is any one of the following temperatures: 200K, 210K, 220K, 230K, 240K, 250K, 260K, 270K, 280K, 290K, 300K, or 310K. In further implementations of the invention, the material operates in an ELR state at temperatures greater than the particular temperature.
  • [0058]
    In some implementations of the invention, a method comprises forming an aperture within a material, the aperture propagating current carriers at temperatures greater than a particular temperature, where the particular temperature is any one of the following temperatures: 200K, 210K, 220K, 230K, 240K, 250K, 260K, 270K, 280K, 290K, 300K, or 310K. In further implementations of the invention, the material operates in an ELR state at temperatures greater than the particular temperature.
  • [0059]
    In some implementations of the invention, a method comprises arranging atoms of a material so as to form an aperture within the material, the aperture remaining sufficiently open at temperatures greater than a particular temperature, where the particular temperature is any one of the following temperatures: 200K, 210K, 220K, 230K, 240K, 250K, 260K, 270K, 280K, 290K, 300K, or 310K. In further implementations of the invention, the material operates in an ELR state at temperatures greater than the particular temperature.
  • [0060]
    In some implementations of the invention, a method comprises arranging atoms of a material so as to form an aperture within the material, the aperture facilitating transport of electrical charge at temperatures greater than a particular temperature, where the particular temperature is any one of the following temperatures: 200K, 210K, 220K, 230K, 240K, 250K, 260K, 270K, 280K, 290K, 300K, or 310K. In further implementations of the invention, the material operates in an ELR state at temperatures greater than the particular temperature.
  • [0061]
    In some implementations of the invention, a method comprises arranging atoms of a material so as to form an aperture within the material, the aperture transporting electrical charge at temperatures greater than a particular temperature, where the particular temperature is any one of the following temperatures: 200K, 210K, 220K, 230K, 240K, 250K, 260K, 270K, 280K, 290K, 300K, or 310K. In further implementations of the invention, the material operates in an ELR state at temperatures greater than the particular temperature.
  • [0062]
    In some implementations of the invention, a method comprises arranging atoms of a material so as to form an aperture within the material, the aperture propagating current carriers at temperatures greater than a particular temperature, where the particular temperature is any one of the following temperatures: 200K, 210K, 220K, 230K, 240K, 250K, 260K, 270K, 280K, 290K, 300K, or 310K. In further implementations of the invention, the material operates in an ELR state at temperatures greater than the particular temperature.
  • [0063]
    In some implementations of the invention, a method comprises selecting an element based on one or more atomic characteristics of an atom of the element in relation to at least one atom of an other element; and forming an aperture in a material, the aperture having a perimeter including at least one atom of the selected element, the material including the at least one atom of the other element, wherein the aperture transports electrical charge in an ELR state. In some implementations of the invention, forming an aperture in a material comprises forming an aperture in a material, the aperture having the perimeter further including at least one atom of the other element.
  • [0064]
    In some implementations of the invention, a method comprises selecting an element based on one or more atomic characteristics of an atom of the element in relation to at least one atom of an other element; and forming an aperture in a material, the aperture having a perimeter including at least one atom of the selected element, the material including the at least one atom of the other element, wherein the aperture facilitates transport of electrical charge in an ELR state. In some implementations of the invention, forming an aperture in a material comprises forming an aperture in a material, the aperture having the perimeter further including at least one atom of the other element.
  • [0065]
    In some implementations of the invention, a method comprises selecting an element based on one or more atomic characteristics of an atom of the element in relation to at least one atom of an other element; and forming an aperture in a material, the aperture having a perimeter including at least one atom of the selected element, the material including the at least one atom of the other element, wherein the aperture propagates current carriers in an ELR state. In some implementations of the invention, forming an aperture in a material comprises forming an aperture in a material, the aperture having the perimeter further including at least one atom of the other element.
  • [0066]
    In some implementations of the invention, a method comprises depositing a modifying material onto an ELR material, the modifying material maintaining an aperture formed in the ELR material at temperatures greater than that of the ELR material alone.
  • [0067]
    In some implementations of the invention, a method comprises depositing an ELR material onto a modifying material, the modifying material maintaining an aperture formed in the ELR material at temperatures greater than that of the ELR material alone or without the modifying material.
  • [0068]
    In some implementations of the invention, a method comprises depositing a modifying material onto a superconducting material, the modifying material maintaining an aperture formed in the superconducting material at temperatures greater than that of the superconducting material alone or without the modifying material.
  • [0069]
    In some implementations of the invention, a method comprises depositing a superconducting material onto a modifying material, the modifying material maintaining an aperture formed in the superconducting material at temperatures greater than that of the superconducting material alone or without the modifying material.
  • [0070]
    In some implementations of the invention, a method comprises modifying a surface of an ELR material so as to maintain an aperture formed within a crystalline structure of the ELR material such that the ELR material remains in an ELR state at temperatures greater than a particular temperature, where the particular temperature is any one of the following temperatures: 200K, 210K, 220K, 230K, 240K, 250K, 260K, 270K, 280K, 290K, 300K, or 310K.
  • [0071]
    In some implementations of the invention, a method comprises modifying a surface of a superconducting material so as to maintain an aperture formed within a crystalline structure of the superconducting material such that the superconducting material remains in a superconducting state at temperatures greater than a particular temperature, where the particular temperature is any one of the following temperatures: 200K, 210K, 220K, 230K, 240K, 250K, 260K, 270K, 280K, 290K, 300K, or 310K.
  • [0072]
    In some implementations of the invention, a method comprises bonding a modifying material to an ELR material, the bonded modifying material maintaining an aperture formed in the ELR material at temperatures greater than that of the ELR material alone or without the modifying material.
  • [0073]
    In some implementations of the invention, a method comprises bonding a modifying material to a superconducting material, the bonded modifying material maintaining an aperture formed in the superconducting material at temperatures greater than that of the superconducting material alone or without the modifying material.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • [0074]
    Various features, advantages, and implementations of the invention may be set forth or be apparent from consideration of the following detailed description, the drawings, and the claims. It is to be understood that the detailed description and the drawings are exemplary and intended to provide further explanation without limiting the scope of the invention except as set forth in the claims.
  • [0075]
    Various implementations of the invention are related to ELR materials, and more particularly to modifying existing ELR materials and/or creating new ELR materials that operate with improved operating characteristics. The novel ELR materials can encompass, for example, compositions, products, processes of manufacture, product-by-process, methods of making novel ELR materials, for example, to obtain a new technical effect.
  • [0076]
    For purposes of this description, extremely low resistance (“ELR”) materials may include: superconducting materials, including, but not limited to, HTS materials; perfectly conducting materials (e.g., perfect conductors); and other conductive materials with extremely low resistance. Further, for purposes of this description, operating characteristics with regard to ELR materials and/or various implementations of the invention may include, but are not limited to, a resistance of the ELR material in its ELR state (for example, with regard to superconductors, a superconducting state), a transition temperature of the ELR material to its ELR state, a charge propagating capacity of the ELR material in its ELR state, one or more magnetic properties of the ELR material, one or more mechanical properties of the ELR material, and/or other operating characteristics of the ELR material. Further, for purposes of this description, “extremely low resistance” is resistance similar in magnitude to the flux flow resistance of Type II superconducting materials in their superconducting state, and may generally be expressed in terms of resistivity in a range of zero Ohm-cm to one fiftieth ( 1/50) of the resistivity of substantially pure copper at 293K. For example, as used herein, substantially pure copper is 99.999% copper. In various implementations of the invention, portions of modified and/or new ELR materials have a resistivity in a range of zero Ohm-cm to 3.36×10−8 Ohm-cm.
  • [0077]
    Incremental improvements in a transition temperature (sometimes also referred to as a critical temperature) of ELR materials, and in particular, superconducting materials, appear to be based on trial and error rather than an understanding of the mechanisms by which ELR materials operate. Without such an understanding, further improvements to a transition temperature (or other operating characteristic) of the known ELR materials (or classes thereof) as well as design of new ELR materials are limited. As generally understood, the transition temperature is a temperature below which the ELR material “operates” or exhibits (or begins exhibiting) extremely low resistance, and/or other phenomenon associated with ELR materials. When operating with extremely low resistance, the ELR material is referred to as being in an ELR state. At temperatures above the transition temperature, the ELR material ceases to exhibit extremely low resistance and the ELR material is referred to as being in its non-ELR state. In other words, the transition temperature corresponds to a temperature at which the ELR material changes between its non-ELR state and its ELR state. As would be appreciated, for some ELR materials, the transition temperature may be a range of temperatures over which the ELR material changes between its non-ELR state and its ELR state. As would also be appreciated, the ELR material may have hysteresis in its transition temperature with one transition temperature as the ELR material warms and another transition temperature as the ELR material cools.
  • [0078]
    FIG. 31 illustrates a reference frame 3100 which may be used to describe various implementations of the invention. Reference frame 3100 includes a set of axes referred to as an a-axis, a b-axis, and a c-axis. For purposes of this description: reference to the a-axis includes the a-axis and any other axis parallel thereto; reference to the b-axis includes the b-axis and any other axis parallel thereto; and reference to the c-axis includes the c-axis and any other axis parallel thereto. Various pairs of the axes form a set of planes in reference frame 3100 referred to as an a-plane, a b-plane, and a c-plane, where: the a-plane is formed by the b-axis and the c-axis and is perpendicular to the a-axis; the b-plane is formed by the a-axis and the c-axis and is perpendicular to the b-axis; and the c-plane is formed by the a-axis and the b-axis and is perpendicular to the c-axis. For purposes of this description: reference to the a-plane includes the a-plane and any plane parallel thereto; reference to the b-plane includes the b-plane and any plane parallel thereto; and reference to the c-plane includes the c-plane and any plane parallel thereto. Further, with regard to various “faces” or “surfaces” of the crystalline structures described herein, a face parallel to the a-plane may sometimes be referred to as a “b-c” face; a face parallel to the b-plane may sometimes be referred to as an “a-c” face; and a face parallel to the c-plane may sometimes be referred to as a “a-b” face.
  • [0079]
    FIG. 1 illustrates a crystalline structure 100 of an exemplary ELR material as viewed from a first perspective, namely, a perspective perpendicular to an “a-b” face of crystalline structure 100 and parallel to the c-axis thereof. FIG. 2 illustrates crystalline structure 100 as viewed from a second perspective, namely, a perspective perpendicular to a “b-c” face of crystalline structure 100 and parallel to the a-axis thereof. FIG. 22 illustrates additional depth (i.e., into the page) for crystalline structure 100 of the exemplary ELR material. For purposes of this description, the exemplary ELR material illustrated in FIG. 1, FIG. 2 and FIG. 22 is generally representative of various ELR materials. In some implementations of the invention, the exemplary ELR material may be a representative of a family of superconducting materials referred to as mixed-valence copper-oxide perovskites. The mixed-valence copper-oxide perovskite materials include, but are not limited to, LaBaCuOx, LSCO (e.g., La2-xSrxCuO4, etc.), YBCO (e.g., YBa2Cu3O7, etc.), BSCCO (e.g., Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10, etc.), TBCCO (e.g., TI2Ba2Ca2Cu3O10 or TImBa2Can−1CunO2n+m+2αδ), HgBa2Ca2Cu3Ox, and other mixed-valence copper-oxide perovskite materials. The other mixed-valence copper-oxide perovskite materials may include, but are not limited to, various substitutions of the cations as would be appreciated. As would also be appreciated, the aforementioned named mixed-valence copper-oxide perovskite materials may refer to generic classes of materials in which many different formulations exist. In some implementations of the invention, the exemplary ELR materials may include an HTS material outside of the family of mixed-valence copper-oxide perovskite materials (“non-perovskite materials”). Such non-perovskite materials may include, but are not limited to, iron pnictides, magnesium diboride (MgB2), and other non-perovskites. In some implementations of the invention, the exemplary ELR materials may be other superconducting materials. Other materials having an aperture 210 may be exploited in accordance with various aspects of the invention as would be appreciated.
  • [0080]
    Many ELR materials have a structure similar to (though not necessarily identical to) that of crystalline structure 100 with different atoms, combinations of atoms, and/or lattice arrangements as would be appreciated. As illustrated in FIG. 2, crystalline structure 100 is depicted with two complete unit cells of the exemplary ELR material, with one unit cell above reference line 110 and one unit cell below reference line 110. FIG. 21 illustrates a single unit cell 2100 of the exemplary ELR material.
  • [0081]
    Generally speaking and as would be appreciated, a unit cell 2100 of the exemplary ELR material includes six “faces”: two “a-b” faces that are parallel to the c-plane; two “a-c” faces that are parallel to the b-plane; and two “b-c” faces that are parallel to the a-plane (see, e.g., FIG. 31). As would also be appreciated, a “surface” of ELR material in the macro sense may be comprised of multiple unit cells 2100 (e.g., hundreds, thousands or more). Reference in this description to a “surface” or “face” of the ELR material being parallel to a particular plane (e.g., the a-plane, the b-plane or the c-plane) indicates that the surface is formed predominately (i.e., a vast majority) of faces of unit cell 2100 that are substantially parallel to the particular plane. Furthermore, reference in this description to a “surface” or “face” of the ELR material being parallel to planes other than the a-plane, the b-plane, or the c-plane (e.g., an ab-plane as described below, etc.) indicates that the surface is formed from some mixture of faces of unit cell 2100 that, in the aggregate macro sense, form a surface substantially parallel to such other planes.
  • [0082]
    Studies indicate that some ELR materials demonstrate an anisotropic (i.e., directional) dependence of the resistance phenomenon. In other words, resistance at a given temperature and current density depends upon a direction in relation to crystalline structure 100. For example, in their ELR state, some ELR materials can carry significantly more current, at zero resistance, in the direction of the a-axis and/or in the direction of the b-axis than such materials do in the direction of the c-axis. As would be appreciated, various ELR materials exhibit anisotropy in various performance phenomenon, including the resistance phenomenon, in directions other than, in addition to, or as combinations of those described above. For purposes of this description, reference to a material that tends to exhibit the resistance phenomenon (and similar language) in a first direction indicates that the material supports such phenomenon in the first direction; and reference to a material that tends not to exhibit the resistance phenomenon (and similar language) in a second direction indicates that the material does not support such phenomenon in the second direction or does so in a reduced manner from other directions.
  • [0083]
    Conventional understanding of known ELR materials has thus far failed to appreciate an aperture 210 formed within crystalline structure 100 by a plurality of aperture atoms 250 as being responsible for the resistance phenomenon. (See e.g., FIG. 21, where aperture 210 is not readily apparent in a depiction of single unit cell 2100.) As will be further described below, aperture 210 exists in many known ELR materials. In some sense, aperture atoms 250 may be viewed as forming a discrete atomic “boundary” or “perimeter” around aperture 210. In some implementations of the invention and as illustrated in FIG. 2, aperture 210 appears between a first portion 220 and a second portion 230 of crystalline structure 100 although in some implementations of the invention, aperture 210 may appear in other portions of various other crystalline structures. While aperture 210, aperture 310, and other apertures are illustrated in FIG. 2, FIG. 3, and elsewhere in the drawings based on depictions of atoms as simple “spheres,” it would be appreciated that such apertures are related to and shaped by, among other things, electrons and their associated electron densities (not otherwise illustrated) of various atoms in crystalline structure 100, including aperture atoms 250.
  • [0084]
    According to various aspects of the invention, aperture 210 facilitates propagation of electrical charge through crystalline structure 100 and when aperture 210 facilitates propagation of electrical charge through crystalline structure 100, ELR material operates in its ELR state. For purposes of this description, “propagates,” “propagating,” and/or “facilitating propagation” (along with their respective forms) generally refer to “conducts,” “conducting” and/or “facilitating conduction” and their respective forms; “transports,” “transporting” and/or “facilitating transport” and their respective forms; “guides,” “guiding” and/or “facilitating guidance” and their respective forms; and/or “carry,” “carrying” and/or “facilitating carrying” and their respective forms. For purposes of this description, electrical charge may include positive charge or negative charge, and/or pairs or other groupings of such charges. For purposes of this description, current carriers may include, but are not limited to, electrons. In some implementations of the invention, aperture 210 propagates negative charges through crystalline structure 100. In some implementations of the invention, aperture 210 propagates positive charges through crystalline structure 100. In some implementations of the invention, aperture 210 propagates pairs or other groupings of electrical charge through crystalline structure 100. In some implementations of the invention, aperture 210 propagates current carriers through crystalline structure 100. In some implementations of the invention, aperture 210 propagates pairs or other groupings of current carriers through crystalline structure 100. In some implementations of the invention, aperture 210 propagates electrical charge in the form of one or more particles through crystalline structure 100. In some implementations of the invention, aperture 210 propagates electrons, pairs of electrons, and/or groupings of electrons in the form of one or more particles through crystalline structure 100. In some implementations of the invention, aperture 210 propagates electrical charge in the form of one or more waves or wave packets through crystalline structure 100. In some implementations of the invention, aperture 210 propagates electrons, pairs of electrons, and/or groupings of electrons in the form of one or more waves or wave packets through crystalline structure 100.
  • [0085]
    In some implementations of the invention, propagation of electrical charge through crystalline structure 100 may be in a manner analogous to that of a waveguide. In some implementations of the invention, aperture 210 may be a waveguide with regard to propagating electrical charge through crystalline structure 100. Waveguides and their operation are generally well understood. In particular, walls surrounding an interior of the waveguide may correspond to the boundary or perimeter of aperture atoms 250 around aperture 210. One aspect relevant to an operation of a waveguide is its cross-section. Typically, the cross-section of a waveguide is related to a wavelength of the signals capable of propagating through the waveguide. Accordingly, the wavelength of the electrical charge propagating through aperture 210 may be related to the cross-section of aperture 210. At the atomic level, aperture 210 and/or its cross-section may change substantially with changes in temperature of the ELR material. For example, in some implementations of the invention, changes in temperature of the ELR material may cause changes in aperture 210 and its operating characteristics, which in turn may cause the ELR material to transition between its ELR state to its non-ELR state. In some implementations of the invention, as temperature of the ELR material increases, aperture 210 may restrict or impede propagation of electrical charge through crystalline structure 100 and the corresponding ELR material may transition from its ELR state to its non-ELR state. In some implementations of the invention, as temperature of the ELR material increases, the cross-section of aperture 210 may change, thereby inhibiting operation of aperture 210 in a manner analogous to a waveguide and the corresponding ELR material may transition from its ELR state to its non-ELR state. Likewise as temperature of the ELR material decreases, in some implementations of the invention, aperture 210 may facilitate (as opposed to restrict or impede) propagation of electrical charge through crystalline structure 100 and the corresponding ELR material may transition from its non-ELR state to its ELR state. In some implementations of the invention, the cross-section of aperture 210 may change, thereby facilitating operation of aperture 210 as a waveguide (or in a manner analogous thereto) and the corresponding ELR material may transition from its non-ELR state to its ELR state.
  • [0086]
    According to various implementations of the invention, as long as aperture 210 is “maintained” within a given ELR material, the ELR material should operate in an ELR state. In various implementations of the invention, as long as aperture 210 is maintained within a given ELR material, aperture 210 should operate in an ELR state. In various implementations of the invention, maintaining aperture 210 may include: maintaining aperture 210 in an ELR state; maintaining an ability of aperture 210 to propagate electrical charge through crystalline structure 100 in an ELR state; maintaining aperture atoms 250 relative to one another so that ELR material operates in an ELR state; maintaining aperture atoms 250 with respect to other atoms within crystalline structure 100 so that the ELR material operates in an ELR state; maintaining a cross-section of aperture 210 sufficient to propagate electrical charge there through so that the ELR material remains in an ELR state; maintaining a cross-section of aperture 210 such that it does not impede, restrict, or otherwise interfere with the propagation of electrical charge so that the ELR material remains in an ELR state; maintaining a cross-section of aperture 210 sufficient to propagate current carriers there through so that ELR material remains in an ELR state; maintaining a cross-section of aperture 210 such that it does not interfere with current carriers so that the ELR material remains in an ELR state; maintaining aperture 210 substantially free from obstruction so that the ELR material remains in an ELR state; maintaining aperture 210 so that ELR material operates with improved operating characteristics; enhancing aperture 210 so that the ELR material operates in an ELR state with improved operating characteristics; enhancing aperture 210 so that the enhanced aperture operates in an ELR state with improved operating characteristics; and/or other ways of maintaining aperture 210 such that ELR material operates in an ELR state. According to various implementations of the invention, maintaining aperture 210 within existing ELR materials may improve the operating characteristics of these existing ELR materials. According to various implementations of the invention, maintaining an aperture 210 within new materials may result in new ELR materials, some of which may have improved operating characteristics over existing ELR materials. According to various implementations of the invention, as long as aperture 210 is maintained within a given ELR material as temperature increases, the ELR material should operate in an ELR state. According to various implementations of the invention, as long as aperture 210 is maintained so as to propagate electrical charge through crystalline structure 100, the ELR material should operate in an ELR state. According to various implementations of the invention, as long as aperture 210 is maintained so as to propagate current carriers through crystalline structure 100, the ELR material should operate in an ELR state. According to various implementations of the invention, as long as aperture atoms 250 are maintained relative to one another within a given ELR material, the ELR material should operate in an ELR state. According to various implementations of the invention, as long as aperture atoms 250 are maintained relative to other atoms within crystalline structure 100 within a given ELR material, the ELR material should operate in an ELR state. According to various implementations of the invention, as long as a cross-section of aperture 210 is maintained sufficient to propagate electrical charge through aperture 210 within a given ELR material, the ELR material should operate in an ELR state. According to various implementations of the invention, as long as a cross-section of aperture 210 is maintained sufficient to propagate current carriers through aperture 210 within a given ELR material, the ELR material should operate in an ELR state. According to various implementations of the invention, as long as a cross-section of aperture 210 is maintained such that electrical charge receives little or no interference through aperture 210, the ELR material should operate in an ELR state. According to various implementations of the invention, as long as a cross-section of aperture 210 is maintained such that current carriers receive little or no interference through aperture 210, the ELR material should operate in an ELR state. According to various implementations of the invention, as long as a cross-section of aperture 210 is maintained substantially free from obstruction within a given ELR material, the ELR material should operate in an ELR state.
  • [0087]
    According to various implementations of the invention, aperture 210 may be maintained, and/or designed to be maintained, such that aperture 210 propagates electrical charge there through with little or no interference. In some implementations of the invention, electrical charge propagating through aperture 210 collides elastically with the boundary or “walls” of aperture 210 similar to the way reflection occurs in an optical waveguide. More particularly, electrical charge propagating through aperture 210 collides elastically with various aperture atoms 250 that comprise the boundary or walls of aperture 210. As long as such collisions are elastic, the electrical charge will experience minimal loss (i.e., “resistance”) as it propagates through aperture 210.
  • [0088]
    Apertures, such as, but not limited to, aperture 210 in FIG. 2, exist in various ELR materials, such as, but not limited to, various ELR materials illustrated in FIG. 3, FIG. 17, FIG. 18, FIG. 19, FIG. 32, FIG. 33, etc., and described below. As illustrated, such apertures are intrinsic to the crystalline structure of some or all ELR materials. Various forms, shapes, sizes, and numbers of apertures 210 exist in ELR materials depending on the precise configuration of the crystalline structure, composition of atoms, and arrangement of atoms within the crystalline structure of the ELR material as would be appreciated in light of this description.
  • [0089]
    The presence and absence of apertures 210 that extend in the direction of various axes through the crystalline structures 100 of various ELR materials is consistent with the anisotropic dependence demonstrated by such ELR materials. For example, as will be discussed in further detail below, various ELR materials illustrated in FIG. 3, FIG. 17, FIG. 18, FIG. 19, FIG. 32, FIG. 33, etc., have apertures that extend in the directions in which these materials demonstrate the resistance phenomenon; similarly, these ELR materials tend not to have apertures that extend in the directions in which these materials do not demonstrate the resistance phenomenon. For example, YBCO-123 exhibits the resistance phenomenon in the direction of the a-axis and the b-axis, but tends not to exhibit the resistance phenomenon in the direction of the c-axis. ELR material 360 which is illustrated in FIG. 3, FIG. 11, and FIG. 30 corresponds to YBCO-123. Consistent with the anisotropic dependence of the resistance phenomenon demonstrated by YBCO-123, FIG. 3 illustrates that apertures 310 extend through crystalline structure 300 in the direction of the a-axis; FIG. 30 illustrates that apertures 310 and apertures 3010 extend through crystalline structure 300 in the direction of the b-axis; and FIG. 11 illustrates that no suitable apertures extend through crystalline structure 300 in the direction of the c-axis.
  • [0090]
    Aperture 210 and/or its cross-section may be dependent upon various atomic characteristics of aperture atoms 250. Such atomic characteristics include, but are not limited to, atomic size, atomic weight, numbers of electrons, number of bonds, bond lengths, bond strengths, bond angles between aperture atoms, bond angles between aperture atoms and non-aperture atoms, and/or isotope number. Aperture atoms 250 may be selected based on their corresponding atomic characteristic to optimize aperture 210 in terms of its size, shape, rigidity, and modes of vibration (in terms of amplitude, frequency, and direction) in relation to crystalline structure and/or atoms therein.
  • [0091]
    In some implementations of the invention, at least some of aperture atoms 250 include atoms having high electro-negativity, for example, but not limited to, oxygen. In some implementations of the invention, at least some of aperture atoms 250 include atoms of an element understood as having some degree of conductivity in their bulk form. In some implementations of the invention, some of aperture atoms 250 include atoms having high electro-negativity and some others of aperture atoms 250 include atoms of an element understood as having some degree of conductivity. In some implementations of the invention, aperture atoms 250 may provide a source of electrical charge (e.g., electrons, etc.) that propagates through aperture 210. In some implementations of the invention, aperture atoms 250 may provide a readily available source of electrical charge for flow of such electrical charge to occur through aperture 210.
  • [0092]
    Aperture 210 and/or its cross-section may be dependent upon various atomic characteristics of “non-aperture atoms” (i.e., atoms in crystalline structure 100 other than aperture atoms 250). Such atomic characteristics include, but are not limited to, atomic size, atomic weight, numbers of electrons, electronic structure, number of bonds, types of bonds, differing bonds, multiple bonds, bond lengths, bond strengths, and/or isotope number. The non-aperture atoms may also be selected based on their corresponding atomic characteristics to optimize aperture 210 in terms of its size, shape, rigidity, and their modes of vibration (in terms of amplitude, frequency, and direction) in relation to crystalline structure and/or atoms therein. In some implementations of the invention, non-aperture atoms may provide a source of electrical charge (e.g., electrons, etc.) that propagates through aperture 210. In some implementations of the invention, non-aperture atoms may provide a readily available source of electrical charge for flow of such electrical charge to occur through aperture 210.
  • [0093]
    In some implementations of the invention, aperture 210 may be dependent upon various atomic characteristics of non-aperture atoms in relation to aperture atoms 250. In some implementations of the invention, aperture 210 may be dependent upon various atomic characteristics of aperture atoms 250 in relation to non-aperture atoms. In some implementations of the invention, aperture 210 may be dependent upon various atomic characteristics of aperture atoms 250 in relation to other aperture atoms 250. In some implementations of the invention, aperture 210 may be dependent upon various atomic characteristics of non-aperture atoms in relation to other non-aperture atoms.
  • [0094]
    According to various implementations of the invention, changes to aperture 210 within crystalline structure 110 may have an impact on the resistance phenomenon. According to various implementations of the invention, changes to the cross-section of aperture 210 may have an impact on the resistance phenomenon. According to various implementations of the invention, changes to obstructions within aperture 210, including changes to a size of the obstruction, a number of the obstructions, or a frequency or probability with which such obstructions appear, may have an impact on the resistance phenomenon. In some implementations of the invention, such obstructions may be dependent upon various atomic characteristics of aperture atoms 250. In some implementations of the invention, such obstructions may be dependent upon various atomic characteristics of non-aperture atoms. Atomic characteristics include, but are not limited to, atomic size, atomic weight, numbers of electrons, electronic structure, number of bonds, types of bonds, differing bonds, multiple bonds, bond lengths, bond strengths, and/or isotope number.
  • [0095]
    According to various implementations of the invention, changes in a physical structure of aperture 210, including changes to a shape and/or size of its cross-section, may have an impact on the resistance phenomenon. According to various implementations of the invention, changes in an electronic structure of aperture 210 may have an impact on the resistance phenomenon. According to various implementations of the invention, changes in crystalline structure 100 that affect aperture atoms 250 may have an impact on the resistance phenomenon. Changes affecting aperture atoms 250 may include, but are not limited to: 1) displacement of a nucleus of an aperture atom relative to other aperture atoms; 2) displacement of a nucleus of a non-aperture atom relative to aperture atoms; 3) changing possible energy states of aperture and/or non-aperture atoms; and 4) changing occupancy of such possible energy states. Any of such changes or combinations of such changes may affect aperture 210. For example, as temperature of crystalline structure 100 increases, the cross-section of aperture 210 may be changed due to vibration of various atoms within crystalline structure 100 as well as changes in energy states, or occupancy thereof, of the atoms in crystalline structure 100. Physical flexure, tension or compression of crystalline structure 100 may also affect the positions of various atoms within crystalline structure 100 and therefore the cross-section of aperture 210. Magnetic fields imposed on crystalline structure 100 may also affect the positions of various atoms within crystalline structure 100 and therefore the cross-section of aperture 210.
  • [0096]
    Phonons correspond to various modes of vibration within crystalline structure 100. Phonons in crystalline structure 100 may interact with electrical charge propagated through crystalline structure 100. More particularly, phonons in crystalline structure 100 may cause atoms in crystalline structure 100 (e.g., aperture atoms 250, non-aperture atoms, etc.) to interact with electrical charge propagated through crystalline structure 100. Higher temperatures result in higher phonon amplitude and may result in increased interaction among phonons, atoms in crystalline structure 100, and such electrical charge. Various implementations of the invention may minimize, reduce, or otherwise modify such interaction among phonons, atoms in crystalline structure 100, and such electrical charge within crystalline structure 100.
  • [0097]
    In some implementations of the invention, modifications to crystalline structure 100 of an existing ELR material may be made to maintain aperture 210 within crystalline structure 100 thereby permitting the existing ELR material to operate with improved operating characteristics. In some implementations of the invention, modifications to crystalline structure 100 of an existing ELR material may be made to maintain aperture 210 within crystalline structure 100 at higher temperatures thereby permitting the existing ELR material to operate with improved operating characteristics. In some implementations of the invention, modifications to crystalline structure 100 of the existing ELR material may be made to maintain aperture 210 within crystalline structure 100 at higher temperatures thereby permitting the existing ELR material to remain in an ELR state at higher temperatures and/or with increased current capacity and/or with other improved operational characteristics. In some implementations of the invention, new ELR materials may be designed with crystalline structures that form and maintain aperture 210 at higher temperatures and/or with increased current capacity and/or with other improved operational characteristics. Various mechanisms may be used to modify crystalline structure 100 in order to maintain aperture 210.
  • [0098]
    In some implementations of the invention, aperture 210 is maintained at temperatures at, about, or above that of liquid nitrogen. In some implementations of the invention, aperture 210 is maintained at temperatures at, about, or above that of solid carbon dioxide. In some implementations of the invention, aperture 210 is maintained at temperatures at, about, or above that of liquid ammonia. In some implementations of the invention, aperture 210 is maintained at temperatures at, about, or above that of various formulations of liquid Freon. In some implementations of the invention, aperture 210 is maintained at temperatures at, about, or above that of frozen water. In some implementations of the invention, aperture 210 is maintained at temperatures at, about, or above that of room temperature (e.g., 21° C.).
  • [0099]
    Accordingly, various new ELR materials may be created, either as modifications of existing ELR materials or design and formation of new ELR materials. In some implementations of the invention, an ELR material operates in an ELR state at temperatures at, about, or above that of liquid nitrogen. In some implementations of the invention, an ELR material operates in an ELR state at temperatures at, about, or above that of solid carbon dioxide. In some implementations of the invention, an ELR material operates in an ELR state at temperatures at, about, or above that of liquid ammonia. In some implementations of the invention, an ELR material operates in an ELR state temperatures at, about, or above that of various formulations of liquid Freon. In some implementations of the invention, an ELR material operates in an ELR state at temperatures at, about, or above that of frozen water. In some implementations of the invention, an ELR material operates in an ELR state at temperatures at, about, or above that of room temperature (e.g., 21° C.). In some implementations of the invention, portions of the ELR material operates in the ELR state at, about, or above any one or more of these temperatures.
  • [0100]
    FIG. 3 illustrates a crystalline structure 300 of an exemplary ELR material 360 from a second perspective. Exemplary ELR material 360 is a superconducting material commonly referred to as “YBCO” which, in certain formulations, has a transition temperature of approximately 90K. In particular, exemplary ELR material 360 depicted in FIG. 3 is YBCO-123. Crystalline structure 300 of exemplary ELR material 360 includes various atoms of yttrium (“Y”), barium (“Ba”), copper (“Cu”) and oxygen (“O”). As illustrated in FIG. 3, an aperture 310 is formed within crystalline structure 300 by aperture atoms 350, namely atoms of yttrium, copper, and oxygen. A cross-sectional distance between the yttrium aperture atoms in aperture 310 is approximately 0.389 nm, a cross-sectional distance between the oxygen aperture atoms in aperture 310 is approximately 0.285 nm, and a cross-sectional distance between the copper aperture atoms in aperture 310 is approximately 0.339 nm.
  • [0101]
    FIG. 30 illustrates crystalline structure 300 of exemplary ELR material 360 from a third perspective. Similar to that described above with regard to FIG. 3, exemplary ELR material 360 is YBCO-123, and aperture 310 is formed within crystalline structure 300 by aperture atoms 350, namely atoms of yttrium, copper, and oxygen. In this orientation, a cross-sectional distance between the yttrium aperture atoms in aperture 310 is approximately 0.382 nm, a cross-sectional distance between the oxygen aperture atoms in aperture 310 is approximately 0.288 nm, and a cross-sectional distance between the copper aperture atoms in aperture 310 is approximately 0.339 nm. In this orientation, in addition to aperture 310, crystalline structure 300 of exemplary ELR material 360 includes an aperture 3010. Aperture 3010 occurs in the direction of the b-axis of crystalline structure 300. More particularly, aperture 3010 occurs between individual unit cells of exemplary ELR material 360 in crystalline structure 300. Aperture 3010 is formed within crystalline structure 300 by aperture atoms 3050, namely atoms of barium, copper and oxygen. A cross-sectional distance between the barium aperture atoms 3050 in aperture 3010 is approximately 0.430 nm, a cross-sectional distance between the oxygen aperture atoms 3050 in aperture 3010 is approximately 0.382 nm, and a cross-sectional distance between the copper aperture atoms 3050 in aperture 3010 is approximately 0.382 nm. In some implementations of the invention, aperture 3010 operates in a manner similar to that described herein with regard to aperture 310. For purposes of this description, aperture 310 in YBCO may be referred to as an “yttrium aperture,” whereas aperture 3010 in YBCO may be referred to as a “barium aperture,” based on the compositions of their respective aperture atoms 350, 3050.
  • [0102]
    FIG. 17 illustrates a crystalline structure 1700 of an exemplary ELR material 1760 as viewed from the second perspective. Exemplary ELR material 1760 is an HTS material commonly referred to as “HgBa2CuO4” which has a transition temperature of approximately 94K. Crystalline structure 1700 of exemplary ELR material 1760 includes various atoms of mercury (“Hg”), barium (“Ba”), copper (“Cu”), and oxygen (“O”). As illustrated in FIG. 17, an aperture 1710 is formed within crystalline structure 1700 by aperture atoms which comprise atoms of barium, copper, and oxygen.
  • [0103]
    FIG. 18 illustrates a crystalline structure 1800 of an exemplary ELR material 1860 as viewed from the second perspective. Exemplary ELR material 1860 is an HTS material commonly referred to as “TI2Ca2Ba2Cu3O10” which has a transition temperature of approximately 128K. Crystalline structure 1800 of exemplary ELR material 1860 includes various atoms of thallium (“TI”), calcium (“Ca”), barium (“Ba”), copper (“Cu”), and oxygen (“O”). As illustrated in FIG. 18, an aperture 1810 is formed within crystalline structure 1800 by aperture atoms which comprise atoms of calcium, barium, copper and oxygen. As also illustrated in FIG. 18, a secondary aperture 1820 may also be formed within crystalline structure 1800 by secondary aperture atoms which comprise atoms of calcium, copper and oxygen. Secondary apertures 1820 may operate in a manner similar to that of apertures 1810.
  • [0104]
    FIG. 19 illustrates a crystalline structure 1900 of an exemplary ELR material 1960 as viewed from the second perspective. Exemplary ELR material 1960 is an HTS material commonly referred to as “La2CuO4” which has a transition temperature of approximately 39K. Crystalline structure 1900 of exemplary ELR material 1960 includes various atoms of lanthanum (“La”), copper (“Cu”), and oxygen (“O”). As illustrated in FIG. 19, an aperture 1910 is formed within crystalline structure 1900 by aperture atoms which comprise atoms of lanthanum and oxygen.
  • [0105]
    FIG. 32 illustrates a crystalline structure 3200 of an exemplary ELR material 3260 as viewed from the second perspective. Exemplary ELR material 3260 is an HTS material commonly referred to as “As2Ba0.34Fe2K0.66” which has a transition temperature of approximately 38K. Exemplary ELR material 3260 is representative of a family of ELR materials sometimes referred to as “iron pnictides.” Crystalline structure 3200 of exemplary ELR material 3260 includes various atoms of arsenic (“As”), barium (“Ba”), iron (“Fe”), and potassium (“K”). As illustrated in FIG. 32, an aperture 3210 is formed within crystalline structure 3200 by aperture atoms which comprise atoms of potassium and arsenic.
  • [0106]
    FIG. 33 illustrates a crystalline structure 3300 of an exemplary ELR material 3360 as viewed from the second perspective. Exemplary ELR material 3360 is an HTS material commonly referred to as “MgB2” which has a transition temperature of approximately 39K. Crystalline structure 3300 of exemplary ELR material 3360 includes various atoms of magnesium (“Mg”) and boron (“B”). As illustrated in FIG. 33, an aperture 3310 is formed within crystalline structure 3300 by aperture atoms which comprise atoms of magnesium and boron.
  • [0107]
    The foregoing exemplary ELR materials illustrated in FIG. 3, FIG. 17, FIG. 18, FIG. 19, FIG. 30, FIG. 32, and FIG. 33 each demonstrate the presence of various apertures within such materials. Various other ELR materials have similar apertures. Once attributed to the resistance phenomenon, apertures and their corresponding crystalline structures may be exploited to improve operating characteristics of existing ELR materials, to derive improved ELR materials from existing ELR materials, and/or to design and formulate new ELR materials.
  • [0108]
    In some implementations of the invention, apertures and their crystalline structures may be modeled, using various computer modeling tools, to improve operating characteristics of various ELR materials. For convenience of description, ELR material 360 (and its attendant characteristics and structures) henceforth generally refers to various ELR materials, including, but not limited to, ELR material 1760, ELR material 1860 and other ELR materials illustrated in the drawings, not just that ELR material illustrated and described with reference to FIG. 3.
  • [0109]
    FIG. 4 illustrates a conceptual mechanical model 400 of crystalline structure 100. Conceptual model 400 includes three springs, namely, a spring S1, a spring SF, and a spring S2, and two masses, namely a mass M1 and a mass M2. For purposes of this description, spring S1 may be modeled as attached to a rigid wall 410 on one side and mass M1 on the other. Together spring S1 and mass M1 may be used to model first portion 220 of crystalline structure 100. Mass M1 is coupled between spring S1 and spring SF. Spring SF may be used to model aperture 210 of crystalline structure 100 (i.e., the forces interacting between first portion 220 and second portion 230). Spring SF is coupled between mass M1 and mass M2. Mass M2 is coupled between spring SF and spring S2. Together spring S2 and mass M2 may be used to model second portion 230 of crystalline structure 100. Again, for purposes of this description, spring S2 may be modeled as attached to a rigid wall 420. Other crystalline structures may be modeled as would be apparent.
  • [0110]
    The springs in FIG. 4 represent the forces interacting between groups of atoms within crystalline structure 100. Each of these forces may be modeled with a spring according to well-established modeling techniques. While the springs in FIG. 4 are depicted in a single dimension, it should be appreciated that the springs may be modeled in three-dimensions as would be apparent; however, such three-dimensional depiction is not necessary for purposes of understanding the invention or implementations thereof.
  • [0111]
    As would be appreciated, temperature and vibrations of atoms (e.g., phonons) are related. In particular, temperature of the ELR material increases as vibrations of the atoms of the ELR materials increase. Amplitude and frequency of these vibrations are related to various forces and masses present in a given ELR material. With regard to crystalline structure 100, springs S1, S2, and SF and masses M1 and M2 affect the vibrations of the mechanical model which in turn simulate the vibrations experienced by crystalline structure 100 as temperature increases, which may in turn impact aperture 210.
  • [0112]
    According to various implementations of the invention, these vibrations affect aperture 210. According to various implementations of the invention, at temperatures above the transition temperature, the vibrations change or otherwise affect aperture 210 such that the ELR material operates in its non-ELR state (e.g., the cross-section of aperture 210 restricts, impedes, or otherwise does not facilitate the propagation of electrical charge through aperture 210); whereas, at temperatures below the transition temperature, the vibrations do not prevent the ELR material from operating in its ELR state (e.g., the cross-section of aperture 210 facilitates propagation of electrical charge through aperture 210).
  • [0113]
    According to various implementations of the invention, at temperatures above the transition temperature, the vibrations change or otherwise affect aperture atoms 250 such that the ELR material transitions to and/or operates in its non-ELR state (or in other words, ceases to operate in its ELR state). According to various implementations of the invention, at temperatures above the transition temperature, the vibrations change or otherwise affect non-aperture atoms such that the ELR material transitions to and/or operates in its non-ELR state.
  • [0114]
    According to various implementations of the invention, the crystalline structure of various known ELR materials may be modified (thereby producing new material derivations) such that the modified ELR material operates with improved operating characteristics over the known ELR material. According to various implementations of the invention, the crystalline structure of various known ELR materials may be modified such that aperture 210 is maintained at higher temperatures. According to various implementations of the invention, the crystalline structure of various known ELR materials may be modified (thereby producing new ELR material derivations) such that aperture 210 propagates electrical charge at higher temperatures. According to various implementations of the invention, the crystalline structure of various new and previously unknown ELR materials may be designed and fabricated such that the new ELR materials operate with improved operating characteristics over existing ELR materials. According to various implementations of the invention, the crystalline structure of various new and previously unknown ELR materials may be designed and fabricated such that aperture 210 is maintained at higher temperatures. According to various implementations of the invention, the crystalline structure of various new and previously unknown ELR materials may be designed and fabricated such that aperture 210 propagates electrical charge at higher temperatures.
  • [0115]
    According to various implementations of the invention, apertures 210 in crystalline structure 100 have a cross-section of sufficient size to propagate electric charge through crystalline structure 100 so that ELR material 360 operates in an ELR state. In some implementations of the invention, those apertures 210 in crystalline structure 100 having a cross-section ranging in size from 0.20 nm to 1.00 nm may propagate electric charge through crystalline structure 100 so that ELR material 360 operates in an ELR state. According to various implementations of the invention, apertures 210 in crystalline structure 100 have a cross-section of sufficient size to propagate electric charge through crystalline structure 100 so that aperture 210 operates in an ELR state. In some implementations, those apertures 210 in crystalline structure 100 having a cross-section ranging in size from 0.20 nm to 1.00 nm may propagate electric charge through crystalline structure 100 so that aperture 210 operates in an ELR state.
  • [0116]
    In some implementations of the invention, improving and designing an ELR material that operates with improved operating characteristics may involve analyzing mechanical aspects (e.g., forces, distances, masses, modes of vibration, etc.) of aperture 210 and crystalline structure 100 so that aperture 210 is maintained sufficiently to remain in an ELR state at higher temperatures. In some implementations of the invention, improving and designing ELR materials that operate with improved operating characteristics may involve analyzing electronic aspects (e.g., attractive and repulsive atomic forces, conductivity, electro-negativity, etc.) of atoms in crystalline structure 100 (including, but not limited to aperture atoms 250) so that aperture 210 is maintained sufficiently to remain in an ELR state at higher temperatures. In some implementations of the invention, improving and designing ELR materials that operate with improved operating characteristics may involve analyzing both electrical aspects and mechanical aspects of aperture 210 and crystalline structure 100, and the atoms therein, so that aperture 210 is maintained sufficiently to operate in an ELR state at higher temperatures.
  • [0117]
    In some implementations of the invention, conceptually speaking, a spring constant of spring S1 may be changed such that S1′≠S1 as illustrated in FIG. 5. A changed spring constant tends to change the amplitude, modes, frequency, direction, and/or other vibrational characteristics of vibrations of the mechanical model. The changed spring constant may guide a corresponding change in crystalline structure 100, for example, a change to a rigidity of first portion 220 of crystalline structure 100. The rigidity of first portion 220 of crystalline structure 100 may be changed by changing various atoms within first portion 220 to affect bond lengths, bond strengths, bond angles, number of bonds or other atomic characteristics of atoms within first portion 220. The rigidity of first portion 220 of crystalline structure 100 may be changed by bonding fewer or more atoms to first portion 220 thereby effectively changing the spring constant of spring S1 as would be appreciated.
  • [0118]
    In some implementations of the invention, conceptually speaking, a spring constant of spring S2 may be changed such that S2′≠S2 as illustrated in FIG. 6. As described above, a changed spring constant tends to change the amplitude, modes, frequency, direction, and/or other vibrational characteristics of vibrations of the mechanical model. The changed spring constant may guide a corresponding change in crystalline structure 100, for example, a change to a rigidity of second portion 230 of crystalline structure 100 in a manner similar to that described above with regard to spring S1. The rigidity of second portion 230 of crystalline structure 100 may be changed by bonding fewer or more atoms to second portion 230 thereby effectively changing the spring constant of spring S2 as would be appreciated.
  • [0119]
    In some implementations of the invention, again, conceptually speaking, a spring constant of spring SF may be changed such that SF′≠SF as illustrated in FIG. 7. As described above, a changed spring constant tends to change the amplitude, modes, frequency, direction, and/or other vibrational characteristics of vibrations of the mechanical model. The changed spring constant may guide a corresponding change in crystalline structure 100, for example, a change to a rigidity of aperture 210 formed within crystalline structure 100. This may be accomplished in a variety of ways including, but not limited to, changing a shape of aperture 210 to one that is structurally different in strength than other shapes, changing bond strengths between aperture atoms, changing bond angles, changing modes of vibration of crystalline structure 100, changing apertures atoms 250, or other ways. This may also be accomplished, for example, by layering a material over crystalline structure 100 such that atoms of the material span aperture 210 by forming one or more bonds between first portion 220 and second portion 230 thereby effectively changing the spring constant of spring SF as would be appreciated. In other words, the atoms spanning aperture 210 introduce an additional spring S in parallel with SF, that in effect, changes the spring constant between first portion 220 and second portion 230. This modification of layering material over crystalline structure 100 is described in further detail below in connection with various experimental test results.
  • [0120]
    In some implementations of the invention, again conceptually speaking, a mass of mass M1 may be decreased such that M1′<M1 as illustrated in FIG. 8. A decreased mass tends to change various amplitude, modes, frequency, direction and/or other vibrational characteristics of vibrations of the mechanical model. The decreased mass may guide a corresponding change in crystalline structure 100, which may ultimately lead to maintaining and/or stabilizing aperture 210 within crystalline structure 100 at higher temperatures. This may be accomplished by, for example, using smaller molecules and/or atoms within first portion 220 of crystalline structure 100 or replacing various larger molecules and/or atoms with smaller ones. Similar effects may be achieved by decreasing a mass of mass M2.
  • [0121]
    In some implementations of the invention, again conceptually speaking, a mass of mass M1 may be increased such that M1′>M1 as illustrated in FIG. 9. An increased mass tends to change various amplitude, modes, frequency, direction and/or other vibrational characteristics of vibrations of the mechanical model. The increased mass may guide a corresponding change in crystalline structure 100, which may ultimately lead to maintaining and/or stabilizing aperture 210 within crystalline structure 100 at higher temperatures. This may be accomplished by, for example, using larger atoms within first portion 220 of crystalline structure 100 or replacing various smaller atoms with larger ones. Similar effects may be achieved by increasing a mass of mass M2.
  • [0122]
    In various implementations of the invention, any combination of the various changes described above with regard to FIGS. 5-9 may be made to change vibrations of the mechanical model, which may guide corresponding changes in crystalline structure 100 in order to maintain aperture 210 at higher temperatures. In some implementations of the invention, tradeoffs between various changes may be necessary in order to provide a net improvement to the maintenance of aperture 210.
  • [0123]
    In some implementations of the invention, a three-dimensional computer model of crystalline structure 100 may be used to design an ELR material with an appropriate aperture 210 that is maintained at higher temperatures. Such models may be used to analyze interactions between aperture atoms 250 and/or non-aperture atoms and their respective impact on aperture 210 over temperature as would be apparent. For example, various computer modeling tools may be used to visualize and analyze crystalline structure 100, and in particular, visualize and analyze apertures 210 in crystalline structure 100. One such computer modeling tool is referred to as “Jmol,” which is an open-source Java viewer for viewing and manipulating chemical structures in 3D. Jmol is available at http://www.jmol.org.
  • [0124]
    In some implementations of the invention, various three-dimensional computer models of crystalline structure 100 may be simulated to determine and evaluate crystalline structures 100 and the interaction of atoms therein. Such computer models may employ the density functional theory (“DFT”). Computer models employing DFT may be used to design new ELR materials and modify existing ELR materials based on maintaining aperture 210 so that these ELR materials operate in an ELR state in accordance with various principles of the invention described herein and as would be appreciated.
  • [0125]
    In some implementations of the invention, combinations of the springs and masses may be selected to change vibrations (including their associated vibrational characteristics) that affect aperture 210 within crystalline structure 100 according to various known techniques. In other words, the springs and masses may be modified and/or selected to change amplitude, modes, frequency, direction and/or other vibrational characteristics of various vibrations within crystalline structure 100 to minimize their impact on aperture 210. By way of example, the springs and masses may be modified and/or selected to permit vibrations within crystalline structure 100 in directions parallel (or substantially parallel) to the propagation of electrical charge through aperture 210 thereby reducing the impact of such vibrations on aperture 210. By way of further example, the springs and masses may be modified and/or selected to adjust various resonant frequencies with crystalline structure 100 to propagate electrical charge through aperture 210 at different temperatures.
  • [0126]
    In some implementations of the invention, combinations of the springs and masses may be selected to maintain aperture 210 within crystalline structure 100 regardless of vibrations experienced within crystalline structure 100. In other words, reducing, increasing and/or otherwise changing vibrations within crystalline structure 100 may not otherwise impact the resistance phenomenon provided that aperture 210 itself is maintained.
  • [0127]
    FIG. 10 illustrates a modified crystalline structure 1010 of a modified ELR material 1060 as viewed from the second perspective in accordance with various implementations of the invention. FIG. 11 illustrates modified crystalline structure 1010 of modified ELR material 1060 as viewed from the first perspective in accordance with various implementations of the invention. ELR material 360 (e.g., for example, as illustrated in FIG. 3 and elsewhere) is modified to form modified ELR material 1060. Modifying material 1020 forms bonds with atoms of crystalline structure 300 (of FIG. 3) of ELR material 360 to form modified crystalline structure 1010 of modified ELR material 1060 as illustrated in FIG. 11. As illustrated, modifying material 1020 bridges a gap between first portion 320 and second portion 330 thereby changing, among other things, vibration characteristics of modified crystalline structure 1010, particularly in the region of aperture 310. In doing so, modifying material 1020 maintains aperture 310 at higher temperatures. In reference to FIG. 7, modifying material 1020 serves to modify the effective spring constant of spring SF, by, for example, acting as one or more additional springs in parallel with spring SF. Accordingly, in some implementations of the invention, modifying material 1020 is specifically selected to fit in and bond with appropriate atoms in crystalline structure 300.
  • [0128]
    In some implementations of the invention and as illustrated in FIG. 10, modifying material 1020 is bonded a face of crystalline structure 300 that is parallel to the b-plane (e.g., an “a-c” face). In such implementations where modifying material 1020 is bonded to the “a-c” face, apertures 310 extending in the direction of the a-axis and with cross-sections lying in the a-plane are maintained. In such implementations, charge carriers flow through aperture 310 in the direction of the a-axis.
  • [0129]
    In some implementations of the invention, modifying material 1020 is bonded to a face of crystalline structure 300 that is parallel to the a-plane (e.g., a “b-c” face). In such implementations where modifying material 1020 is bonded to the “b-c” face, apertures 310 extending in the direction of the b-axis and with cross-sections lying in the b-plane are maintained. In such implementations, charge carriers flow through aperture 310 in the direction of the b-axis.
  • [0130]
    Various implementations of the invention include layering a particular surface of ELR material 360 with modifying material 1020 (i.e., modifying the particular surface of ELR material 360 with the modifying material 1020). As would be recognized from this description, reference to “modifying a surface” of ELR material 360, ultimately includes modifying a face (and in some cases more that one face) of one or more unit cells 2100 of ELR material 360. In other words, modifying material 1020 actually bonds to atoms in unit cell 2100 of ELR material 360.
  • [0131]
    For example, modifying a surface of ELR material 360 parallel to the a-plane includes modifying “b-c” faces of unit cells 2100. Likewise, modifying a surface of ELR material 360 parallel to the b-plane includes modifying “a-c” faces of unit cells 2100. In some implementations of the invention, modifying material 1020 is bonded to a surface of ELR material 360 that is substantially parallel to any plane that is parallel to the c-axis. For purposes of this description, planes that are parallel to the c-axis are referred to generally as ab-planes, and as would be appreciated, include the a-plane and the b-plane. As would be appreciated, a surface of ELR material 360 parallel to the ab-plane is formed from some mixture of “a-c” faces and “b-c” faces of unit cells 2100. In such implementations where modifying material 1020 is bonded to a surface parallel to an ab-plane, apertures 310 extending in the direction of the a-axis and apertures 310 extending in the direction of the b-axis are maintained.
  • [0132]
    In some implementations of the invention, modifying material 1020 may be a conductive material. In some implementations of the invention, modifying material 1020 may a material with high oxygen affinity (i.e., a material that bonds easily with oxygen) (“oxygen bonding material”). In some implementations of the invention, modifying material 1020 may be a conductive material that bonds easily with oxygen (“oxygen bonding conductive materials”). Such oxygen bonding conductive materials may include, but are not limited to: chromium, copper, bismuth, cobalt, vanadium, and titanium. Such oxygen bonding conductive materials may also include, but are not limited to: rhodium or beryllium. Other modifying materials may include gallium or selenium. In some implementations of the invention, modifying material 1020 may be chromium (Cr). In some implementations of the invention, modifying material 1020 may be copper (Cu). In some implementations of the invention, modifying material 1020 may be bismuth (Bi). In some implementations of the invention, modifying material 1020 may be cobalt (Co). In some implementations of the invention, modifying material 1020 may be vanadium (V). In some implementations of the invention, modifying material 1020 may be titanium (Ti). In some implementations of the invention, modifying material 1020 may be rhodium (Rh). In some implementations of the invention, modifying material 1020 may be beryllium (Be). In some implementations of the invention, modifying material 1020 may be gallium (Ga). In some implementations of the invention, modifying material 1020 may be selenium (Se). In some implementations of the invention, other elements may be used as modifying material 1020. In some implementations of the invention, combinations of different materials (e.g., compounds, compositions, molecules, alloys, etc.) may be used as modifying material 1020. In some implementations of the invention, various layers of materials and/or combinations of materials may be used collectively as modifying material 1020. In some implementations of the invention, modifying material 1020 corresponds to atoms having appropriate bonding with oxygen. In some implementations of the invention, modifying material 1020 includes atoms that have bond lengths with various atom(s) in crystalline structure 1010 at least as large as half the distance between atoms of first portion 320 and atoms of second portion 330. In some implementations of the invention, modifying material 1020 includes atoms that bond with various atom(s) in crystalline structure 1010. In some implementations of the invention, modifying material 1020 includes atoms that bond well with various atom(s) in crystalline structure 1010.
  • [0133]
    In some implementations of the invention, oxides of modifying material 1020 may form during various operations associated with modifying ELR material 360 with modifying material 1020. Accordingly, in some implementations of the invention, modifying material 1020 may comprise a substantially pure form of modifying material 1020 and various oxides of modifying material 1020. In other words, in some implementations of the invention, ELR material 360 is modified with modifying material 1020 and various oxides of modifying material 1020. By way of example, but not limitation, in some implementations of the invention, modifying material 1020 may comprise chromium and chromium oxide (CrxOy). In some implementations of the invention, ELR material 360 is modified with various oxides of modifying material 1020. By way of example, but not limitation, in some implementations of the invention, ELR material 360 is modified with chromium oxide (CrxOy).
  • [0134]
    In some implementations of the invention, other materials may be used to modify crystalline structure 1010. For example, a modifying material 1020 having increased bond strengths in relation to the copper oxide layer may be selected to replace yttrium (one of the aperture atoms). Also for example, a modifying material 1020 having increased bond strengths in relation to yttrium may be selected to replace the copper oxide layer. For example, chromium oxide (CrO) may be selected to replace the copper oxide (CuO). Also for example, a modifying material 1020 having increased bond strengths in relation to the copper oxide layer may be selected to replace barium. While these examples refer to bond strengths, various modifying materials 1020 may be selected based on other atomic characteristics or combinations thereof that tend to maintain aperture 310 at higher temperatures, for example, but not limited to, modifying materials 1020 that may result in net changes in vibrations in crystalline structure 1010.
  • [0135]
    In some implementations of the invention, ELR material 360 may be YBCO and modifying material 1020 may be an oxygen bonding conductive material. In some implementations of the invention, modifying material 1020 may be chromium and ELR material 360 may be YBCO. In some implementations of the invention, modifying material 1020 may be copper and ELR material 360 may be YBCO. In some implementations of the invention, modifying material 1020 may be bismuth and ELR material 360 may be YBCO. In some implementations of the invention, modifying material 1020 may be cobalt and ELR material 360 may be YBCO. In some implementations of the invention, modifying material 1020 may be vanadium and ELR material 360 may be YBCO. In some implementations of the invention, modifying material 1020 may be titanium and ELR material 360 may be YBCO. In some implementations of the invention, modifying material 1020 may be rhodium and ELR material 360 may be YBCO. In some implementations of the invention, modifying material 1020 may be beryllium and ELR material 360 may be YBCO. In some implementations of the invention, modifying material 1020 is another oxygen bonding conductive material and ELR material 360 may be YBCO.
  • [0136]
    In some implementations of the invention, modifying material 1020 may be gallium and ELR material 360 may be YBCO. In some implementations of the invention, modifying material 1020 may be selenium and ELR material 360 may be YBCO.
  • [0137]
    In some implementations of the invention, various other combinations of mixed-valence copper-oxide perovskite materials and oxygen bonding conductive materials may be used. For example, in some implementations of the invention, ELR material 360 corresponds to a mixed-valence copper-oxide perovskite material commonly referred to as “BSCCO.” BSCCO includes various atoms of bismuth (“Bi”), strontium (“Sr”), calcium (“Ca”), copper (“Cu”) and oxygen (“O”). By itself, BSCCO has a transition temperature of approximately 100K. In some implementations of the invention, ELR material 360 may be BSCCO and modifying material 1020 may be an oxygen bonding conductive material. In some implementations of the invention, ELR material 360 may be BSCCO and modifying material 1020 may be selected from the group including, but not limited to: chromium, copper, bismuth, cobalt, vanadium, titanium, rhodium, or beryllium. In some implementations of the invention, ELR material 360 may be BSCCO and modifying material 1020 may be selected from the group consisting of: chromium, copper, bismuth, cobalt, vanadium, titanium, rhodium, and beryllium.
  • [0138]
    In some implementations of the invention, various combinations of other ELR materials and modifying materials may be used. For example, in some implementations of the invention, ELR material 360 corresponds to an iron pnictide material. Iron pnictides, by themselves, have transition temperatures that range from approximately 25-60K. In some implementations of the invention, ELR material 360 may be an iron pnictide and modifying material 1020 may be an oxygen bonding conductive material. In some implementations of the invention, ELR material 360 may be an iron pnictide and modifying material 1020 may be selected from the group including, but not limited to: chromium, copper, bismuth, cobalt, vanadium, titanium, rhodium, or beryllium. In some implementations of the invention, ELR material 360 may be an iron pnictide and modifying material 1020 may be selected from the group consisting of: chromium, copper, bismuth, cobalt, vanadium, titanium, rhodium, and beryllium.
  • [0139]
    In some implementations of the invention, various combinations of other ELR materials and modifying materials may be used. For example, in some implementations of the invention, ELR material 360 may be magnesium diboride (“MgB2”). By itself, magnesium diboride has a transition temperature of approximately 39K. In some implementations of the invention, ELR material 360 may be magnesium diboride and modifying material 1020 may be an oxygen bonding conductive material. In some implementations of the invention, ELR material 360 may be magnesium diboride and modifying material 1020 may be selected from the group including, but not limited to: chromium, copper, bismuth, cobalt, vanadium, titanium, rhodium, or beryllium. In some implementations of the invention, ELR material 360 may be magnesium diboride and modifying material 1020 may be selected from the group consisting of: chromium, copper, bismuth, cobalt, vanadium, titanium, rhodium, and beryllium.
  • [0140]
    In some implementations of the invention, modifying material 1020 may be layered onto a sample of ELR material 360 using various techniques for layering one composition onto another composition as would be appreciated. For example, such layering techniques include, but are not limited to, pulsed laser deposition, evaporation including coevaporation, e-beam evaporation and activated reactive evaporation, sputtering including magnetron sputtering, ion beam sputtering and ion assisted sputtering, cathodic arc deposition, CVD, organometallic CVD, plasma enhanced CVD, molecular beam epitaxy, a sol-gel process, liquid phase epitaxy and/or other layering techniques. In some implementations of the invention, ELR material 360 may be layered onto a sample of modifying material 1020 using various techniques for layering one composition onto another composition. In some implementations of the invention, a single atomic layer of modifying material 1020 (i.e., a layer of modifying material 1020 having a thickness substantially equal to a single atom or molecule of modifying material 1020) may be layered onto a sample of ELR material 360. In some implementations of the invention, a single unit layer of the modifying material (i.e., a layer of the modifying material having a thickness substantially equal to a single unit (e.g., atom, molecule, crystal, or other unit) of the modifying material) may be layered onto a sample of the ELR material. In some implementations of the invention, the ELR material may be layered onto a single unit layer of the modifying material. In some implementations of the invention, two or more unit layers of the modifying material may be layered onto the ELR material. In some implementations of the invention, the ELR material may be layered onto two or more unit layers of the modifying material.
  • [0141]
    Others have attempted to layer various compositions (e.g., gold, copper, silicon, etc.) onto known ELR materials in an effort to improve their usefulness in various applications. However, the selection of such compositions was not based on an intent to change, enhance or otherwise maintain aperture 210, specifically with regard to: various geometric characteristics of crystalline structure 100 and aperture 210 (for example, but not limited to, the width of the gap between first portion 220 and second portion 230, size of aperture 210, etc.); atomic characteristics of aperture atoms 250 in crystalline structure 100, their interaction with each other and their impact on aperture 210 as temperature changes; and atomic characteristics of atoms in crystalline structure 100 and their interaction with modifying material 1020 (for example, but not limited to, various bonding properties of modifying material 1020 with atoms in crystalline structure 100).
  • [0142]
    In some implementations of the invention, changes to lattices used within crystalline structure 100 may be made. For example, lattices having monoclinic crystal symmetries, orthorhombic crystal symmetries, or cubic crystal symmetries may be used to improve various other lattices within crystalline structure 100. In addition, a body-centered cubic symmetry or a face-centered cubic symmetry may be used to improve a simple cubic symmetry within crystalline structure 100. In some implementations, a wider variety of lattices within crystalline structure 100 may maintain aperture 210 at higher temperatures. In some implementations, more complex lattices within crystalline structure 100 may maintain aperture 210 at higher temperatures.
  • [0143]
    In some implementations of the invention, crystalline structure 100 may be designed so that phonons (i.e., lattice vibrations) within crystalline structure 100 predominately propagate through crystalline structure 100 in a single direction that is parallel to the propagation of electrical charge through aperture 210 (i.e., into the page of, for example, FIG. 2). Such phonons tend not to affect aperture 210 thereby permitting aperture 210 to operate in an ELR state at higher temperatures. Any phonons propagating orthogonal to the propagation of electrical charge through aperture 210 may be minimized so as to avoid affecting aperture 210.
  • [0144]
    FIGS. 12 and 13A-13I are now used to describe modifying a sample 1310 of an ELR material 360 to produce a modified ELR material 1060 according to various implementations of the invention. FIG. 12 is a flowchart for modifying sample 1310 of ELR material 360 with a modifying material 1020 to produce a modified ELR material 1060 according to various implementations of the invention. FIGS. 13A-13J illustrate sample 1310 of ELR material 360 undergoing modifications to produce modified ELR material 1060 according to various implementations of the invention. In some implementations of the invention, ELR material 360 is a mixed-valence copper-oxide perovskite material and modifying material 1380 is an oxygen bonding conductive material. In some implementations of the invention, ELR material 360 is an HTS material commonly referred to as YBCO and modifying material 1380 is chromium.
  • [0145]
    As illustrated in FIG. 13A, sample 1310 is a plurality of crystalline unit cells of ELR material 360 and is oriented with its non-conducting axis (or more particularly, its non-ELR or non-superconducting axis) along the c-axis. In some implementations of the invention, sample 1310 has dimensions of approximately 5 mm×10 mm×10 mm. For purposes of this description, sample 1310 is oriented so that a primary axis of conduction of ELR material 360 aligned along the a-axis. As would be apparent, if ELR material 360 includes two primary axes of conduction, sample 1310 may be oriented along either the a-axis or the b-axis. As would be further appreciated, in some implementations sample 1310 may be oriented along any line within the c-plane (i.e., a face parallel with any ab-plane). In an operation 1210 and as illustrated in FIG. 13B and FIG. 13C, a slice 1320 is produced by cutting sample 1310 along a plane substantially parallel to the a-plane of sample 1310. In some implementations of the invention, slice 1320 is approximately 3 mm thick although other thicknesses may be used. In some implementations of the invention, this may be accomplished using a precision diamond blade.
  • [0146]
    In an optional operation 1220 and as illustrated in FIG. 13D, FIG. 13E, and FIG. 13F, a wedge 1330 is produced by cutting slice 1320 along a diagonal of the a-plane of slice 1320 to expose various apertures in sample 1310. In some implementations of the invention, this is accomplished using a precision diamond blade. This operation produces a face 1340 on the diagonal surface of wedge 1330 having exposed apertures. In some implementations of the invention, face 1340 corresponds to any plane that is substantially parallel to the c-axis. In some implementations of the invention, face 1340 corresponds to a plane substantially perpendicular to the a-axis (i.e., the a-plane of crystalline structure 100). In some implementations of the invention, face 1340 corresponds to a plane substantially perpendicular to the b-axis (i.e., the b-plane of crystalline structure 100). In some implementations of the invention, face 1340 corresponds to a plane substantially perpendicular to any line in the ab-plane. In some implementations of the invention, face 1340 corresponds to any plane that is not substantially perpendicular to the c-axis. In some implementations of the invention, face 1340 corresponds to any plane that is not substantially perpendicular to any substantially non-conducting axis (or non-ELR or non-superconducting axis) of the ELR material 360. As would be appreciated, operation 1220 may not be necessary as slice 1320 may have exposed apertures and/or other characteristics similar to those discussed above with reference to face 1340.
  • [0147]
    In an operation 1230 and as illustrated in FIG. 13G and FIG. 13J, a modifying material 1380 (e.g., modifying material 1020 as illustrated in FIG. 10 and elsewhere) is deposited onto face 1340 to produce a face 1350 of modifying material 1380 on wedge 1330 and a modified region 1360 of modified ELR material 1060 at an interface between face 1340 and modifying material 1380. Modified region 1360 in wedge 1330 corresponds to a region in wedge 1330 where modifying material 1380 bonds to crystalline structure 300 in accordance with various implementations of the invention to improve crystalline structure 300 in proximity to aperture 310. Other forms of bonding modifying material 1380 to ELR material 360 may be used. Operation 1230 is described in further detail below in reference to FIG. 14.
  • [0148]
    Referring to FIG. 14, in an operation 1410, face 1340 is polished. In some implementations of the invention, one or more polishes may be used. In some implementations of the invention that include YBCO as the ELR material, one or more non-water-based polishes may be used, including, but not limited to isopropyl alcohol, heptane, non-organic or stable organic slurries. In some implementations of the invention, water-based polishes may be used. In some implementations of the invention, face 1340 is finally polished with a 20 nm colloidal slurry. In some implementations of the invention, polishing of face 1340 is performed in a direction substantially parallel to the a-axis of wedge 1330 (i.e., along a direction of apertures 310). In some implementations of the invention, oxygen plasma ashing may be used as would be appreciated. In some implementations of the invention, cleanliness of face 1340 (i.e., absence of impurities or other materials, compositions, or compounds) just prior to layering modifying material 1380 thereon may be important to achieving improved operational characteristics in the modified ELR material over those of the unmodified ELR material.
  • [0149]
    In an operation 1420, one or more surfaces other than face 1340 are masked. In some implementations, all surfaces other than face 1340 are masked. In an operation 1430, modifying material 1380 is deposited onto face 1340 using vapor deposition. In some implementations of the invention, approximately 40 nm of modifying material 1380 is deposited onto face 1340 using vapor deposition, although smaller or larger amounts of modifying material 1380 may be used. In some implementations of the invention, modifying material 1380 is deposited onto face 1340 using vapor deposition under a vacuum, which may have a pressure of 5×10−6 torr or less.
  • [0150]
    Referring to FIG. 12, FIG. 13H and FIG. 13I, in an optional operation 1240, in some implementations of the invention, a portion of wedge 1330 is removed to reduce a size of wedge 1330 to produce a wedge 1390. In an operation 1250, double-ended leads are applied to each of the two a-planes (i.e., “b-c” faces) of wedge 1390 using a bonding agent. In some implementations of the invention, silver paste (Alfa Aesar silver paste #42469) is used to apply double-ended leads to the two a-planes (i.e., “b-c” faces) of wedge 1390. In an operation 1260, the bonding agent is cured. In some implementations using silver paste as the bonding agent, the silver paste is cured for one hour at 60° C. and then cured for an additional hour at 150° C. Other curing protocols may be used as would be apparent. In some implementations of the invention, a conductive material, such as, but not limited to, silver, is sputtered or otherwise bonded onto each of the two b-c faces of wedge 1390 and the double-ended leads are attached thereto as would be apparent. Other mechanisms for attaching double-ended leads to wedge 490 may be used. After operation 1250, wedge 1390 with modified region 1360 (illustrated in FIG. 13J) is ready for testing.
  • [0151]
    FIG. 15 illustrates a test bed 1500 useful for determining various operational characteristics of wedge 1390. Test bed 1500 includes a housing 1510 and four clamps 1520. Wedge 1390 is placed in housing 1510 and each of the double-ended leads are clamped to housing 1510 using clamps 1520 as illustrated. The leads are clamped to housing 1510 to provide stress relief in order to prevent flexure and/or fracture of the cured silver paste. A current source is applied to one end of the pair of double-ended leads and a voltmeter measures voltage across the other end of the pair of double-ended leads. This configuration provides a multi-point technique for determining resistance of wedge 1390, and in particular, of modified ELR material 1060 as would be appreciated.
  • [0152]
    FIGS. 16A-16G illustrate test results 1600 obtained as described above. Test results 1600 include a plot of resistance of modified ELR material 1060 as a function of temperature (in K). More particularly, test results 1600 correspond to modified ELR material 1060 where modifying material 1380 corresponds to chromium and where ELR material 360 corresponds to YBCO. FIG. 16A includes test results 1600 over a full range of temperature over which resistance of modified ELR material 1060 was measured, namely 84K to 286K. In order to provide further detail, test results 1600 were broken into various temperature ranges and illustrated. In particular, FIG. 16B illustrates those test results 1600 within a temperature range from 240K to 280K; FIG. 16C illustrates those test results 1600 within a temperature range from 210K to 250K;
  • [0153]
    FIG. 16D illustrates those test results 1600 within a temperature range from 180K to 220K; FIG. 16E illustrates those test results 1600 within a temperature range from 150K to 190K; FIG. 16F illustrates those test results 1600 within a temperature range from 120K to 160K; and FIG. 16G illustrates those test results 1600 within a temperature range from 84.5K to 124.5K.
  • [0154]
    Test results 1600 demonstrate that various portions of modified ELR material 1060 within wedge 1390 operate in an ELR state at higher temperatures relative to ELR material 360. Six sample analysis test runs were made using wedge 1390. For each sample analysis test run, test bed 1510, with wedge 1390 mounted therein, was slowly cooled from approximately 286K to 83K. While being cooled, the current source applied +60 nA and −60 nA of current in a delta mode configuration through wedge 1390 in order to reduce impact of any DC offsets and/or thermocouple effects. At regular time intervals, the voltage across wedge 1390 was measured by the voltmeter. For each sample analysis test run, the time series of voltage measurements were filtered using a 512-point fast Fourier transform (“FFT”). All but the lowest 44 frequencies from the FFT were eliminated from the data and the filtered data was returned to the time domain. The filtered data from each sample analysis test run were then merged together to produce test results 1600. More particularly, all the resistance measurements from the six sample analysis test runs were organized into a series of temperature ranges (e.g., 80K-80.25K, 80.25K to 80.50, 80.5K to 80.75K, etc.) in a manner referred to as “binning.” Then the resistance measurements in each temperature range were averaged together to provide an average resistance measurement for each temperature range. These average resistance measurements form test results 1600.
  • [0155]
    Test results 1600 include various discrete steps 1610 in the resistance versus temperature plot, each of such discrete steps 1610 representing a relatively rapid change in resistance over a relatively narrow range of temperatures. At each of these discrete steps 1610, discrete portions of modified ELR material 1060 begin propagating electrical charge up to such portions' charge propagating capacity at the respective temperatures. This behavior is described in reference to FIG. 13J, which illustrates an interface between modifying material 1380 and ELR material 360. At very small scales, face 1340 is not perfectly smooth. In fact, as illustrated, only portions of apertures 310 are exposed within face 1340 and hence only small portions of ELR material 360 may be modified. Hence, apertures 310 within modified ELR material 1060 typically do not extend across the entire width or length of wedge 1390. Accordingly, in some implementations of the invention, modifying material 1380 covers an entire surface of ELR material 360 and may act as a conductor that carries electrical charge between apertures 310.
  • [0156]
    Before discussing test results 1600 in further detail, various characteristics of ELR material 360 and modifying material 1380 are discussed. Resistance versus temperature (“R-T”) profiles of these materials individually are generally well known. The individual R-T profiles of these materials are not believed to include features similar to discrete steps 1610 found in test results 1600. In fact, unmodified samples of ELR material 360 and samples of modifying material 1380 alone have been tested under similar and often identical testing and measurement configurations. In each instance, the R-T profile of the unmodified samples of ELR material 360 and the R-T profile of the modifying material alone did not include any features similar to discrete steps 1610. Accordingly, discrete steps 1610 are the result of modifying ELR material 360 with modifying material 1380 to maintain aperture 310 at increased temperatures thereby allowing modified material 1380 to remain in an ELR state at such increased temperatures in accordance with various implementations of the invention.
  • [0157]
    At each of discrete steps 1610, various ones of apertures 310 within modified ELR material 1060 start propagating electrical charge up to each aperture's 310 charge propagating capacity. As measured by the voltmeter, each charge propagating aperture 310 appears as a short-circuit, dropping the apparent voltage across wedge 1390 by a small amount. The apparent voltage continues to drop as additional ones of apertures 310 start propagating electrical charge until the temperature of wedge 1390 reaches the transition temperature of ELR material 360 (i.e., the transition temperature of the unmodified ELR material which in the case of YBCO is approximately 90K).
  • [0158]
    Test results 1600 indicate that certain apertures 310 within modified ELR material 1060 propagate electrical charge at approximately 97K. In other words, test results indicate that certain apertures 310 within modified ELR material 1060 propagate electrical charge through crystalline structure of the modified ELR material 1060 at approximately 97K. Test results 1600 also indicate that: certain apertures 310 within modified ELR material 1060 propagate electrical charge at approximately 100K; certain apertures 310 within modified ELR material 1060 propagate electrical charge at approximately 103K; certain apertures 310 within modified ELR material 1060 propagate electrical charge at approximately 113K; certain apertures 310 within modified ELR material 1060 propagate electrical charge at approximately 126K; certain apertures 310 within modified ELR material 1060 propagate electrical charge at approximately 140K; certain apertures 310 within modified ELR material 1060 propagate electrical charge at approximately 146K; certain apertures 310 within modified ELR material 1060 propagate electrical charge at approximately 179K; certain apertures 310 within modified ELR material 1060 propagate electrical charge at approximately 183.5K; certain apertures 310 within modified ELR material 1060 propagate electrical charge at approximately 200.5K; certain apertures 310 within modified ELR material 1060 propagate electrical charge at approximately 237.5K; and certain apertures 310 within modified ELR material 1060 propagate electrical charge at approximately 250K. Certain apertures 310 within modified ELR material 1060 may propagate electrical charge at other temperatures within the full temperature range as would be appreciated.
  • [0159]
    Test results 1600 include various other relatively rapid changes in resistance over a relatively narrow range of temperatures not otherwise identified as a discrete step 1610. Some of these other changes may correspond to artifacts from data processing techniques used on the measurements obtained during the test runs (e.g., FFTs, filtering, etc.). Some of these other changes may correspond to changes in resistance due to resonant frequencies in modified crystalline structure 1010 affecting aperture 310 at various temperatures. Some of these other changes may correspond to additional discrete steps 1610. In addition, changes in resistance in the temperature range of 270-274K are likely to be associated with water present in modified ELR material 1060, some of which may have been introduced during preparation of wedge 1380, for example, but not limited to, during operation 1410.
  • [0160]
    In addition to discrete steps 1610, test results 1600 differ from the R-T profile of ELR material 360 in that modifying material 1380 conducts well at temperatures above the transition temperature of ELR material 360 whereas ELR material 360 typically does not.
  • [0161]
    FIG. 24 illustrates additional test results 2400 for samples of ELR material 360 and modifying material 1380. More particularly, for test results 2400, modifying material 1380 corresponds to chromium and ELR material 360 corresponds to YBCO. For test results 2400, samples of ELR material 360 were prepared, using various techniques discussed above, to expose a face of crystalline structure 300 parallel to the a-plane or the b-plane. Test results 2400 were gathered using a lock-in amplifier and a K6221 current source, which applied a 10 nA current at 24.0, Hz to modified ELR material 1060. Test results 2400 include a plot of resistance of modified ELR material 1060 as a function of temperature (in K). FIG. 24 includes test results 2400 over a full range of temperature over which resistance of modified ELR material 1060 was measured, namely 80K to 275K. Test results 2400 demonstrate that various portions of modified ELR material 1060 operate in an ELR state at higher temperatures relative to ELR material 360. Five sample analysis test runs were made with a sample of modified ELR material 1060. For each sample analysis test run, the sample of modified ELR material 1060 was slowly warmed from 80K to 275K. While being warmed, the voltage across the sample of modified ELR material 1060 was measured at regular time intervals and the resistance was calculated based on the source current. For each sample analysis test run, the time series of resistance measurements were filtered using a 1024-point FFT. All but the lowest 15 frequencies from the FFT were eliminated from the data and the filtered resistance measurements were returned to the time domain. The filtered resistance measurements from each sample analysis test run were then merged together using the binning process referred to above to produce test results 2400. Then the resistance measurements in each temperature range were averaged together to provide an average resistance measurement for each temperature range. These average resistance measurements form test results 2400.
  • [0162]
    Test results 2400 include various discrete steps 2410 in the resistance versus temperature plot, each of such discrete steps 2410 representing a relatively rapid change in resistance over a relatively narrow range of temperatures, similar to discrete steps 1610 discussed above with respect to FIGS. 16A-16G. At each of these discrete steps 2410, discrete portions of modified ELR material 1060 propagate electrical charge up to such portions' charge propagating capacity at the respective temperatures.
  • [0163]
    Test results 2400 indicate that certain apertures 310 within modified ELR material 1060 propagate electrical charge at approximately 120K. In other words, test results 2400 indicate that certain apertures 310 within modified ELR material 1060 propagate electrical charge through crystalline structure of the modified ELR material 1060 at approximately 120K. Test results 2400 also indicate that: certain apertures 310 within modified ELR material 1060 propagate electrical charge at approximately 145K; certain apertures 310 within modified ELR material 1060 propagate electrical charge at approximately 175K; certain apertures 310 within modified ELR material 1060 propagate electrical charge at approximately 200K; certain apertures 310 within modified ELR material 1060 propagate electrical charge at approximately 225K; and certain apertures 310 within modified ELR material 1060 propagate electrical charge at approximately 250K. Certain apertures 310 within modified ELR material 1060 may propagate electrical charge at other temperatures within the full temperature range as would be appreciated.
  • [0164]
    FIGS. 25-29 illustrate additional test results for samples of ELR material 360 and various modifying materials 1380. For these additional test results, samples of ELR material 360 were prepared, using various techniques discussed above, to expose a face of crystalline structure 300 substantially parallel to the a-plane or the b-plane or some combination of the a-plane or the b-plane and the modifying material was layered onto these exposed faces. Each of these modified samples was slowly cooled from approximately 300K to 80K. While being warmed, a current source applied a current in a delta mode configuration through the modified sample as described below. At regular time intervals, the voltage across the modified sample was measured. For each sample analysis test run, the time series of voltage measurements were filtered in the frequency domain using an FFT by removing all but the lowest frequencies, and the filtered measurements were returned to the time domain. The number of frequencies kept is in general different for each data set. The filtered data from each of test runs were then binned and averaged together to produce the test results illustrated in FIGS. 25-29.
  • [0165]
    FIG. 25 illustrates test results 2500 including a plot of resistance of modified ELR material 1060 as a function of temperature (in K). For test results 2500, modifying material 1380 corresponds to vanadium and ELR material 360 corresponds to YBCO. Test results 2500 were produced over 11 test runs using a 20 nA current source, a 1024-point FFT was performed, and information from all but the lowest 12 frequencies were eliminated. Test results 2500 demonstrate that various portions of modified ELR material 1060 operate in an ELR state at higher temperatures relative to ELR material 360. Test results 2500 include various discrete steps 2510 in the resistance versus temperature plot, similar to those discussed above with regard to FIGS. 16A-16G. Test results 2500 indicate that: certain apertures 310 within modified ELR material 1060 propagate electrical charge at approximately 267K; certain apertures 310 within modified ELR material 1060 propagate electrical charge at approximately 257K; certain apertures 310 within modified ELR material 1060 propagate electrical charge at approximately 243K; certain apertures 310 within modified ELR material 1060 propagate electrical charge at approximately 232K; and certain apertures 310 within modified ELR material 1060 propagate electrical charge at approximately 219K. Certain apertures 310 within modified ELR material 1060 may propagate electrical charge at other temperatures.
  • [0166]
    FIG. 26 illustrates test results 2600 include a plot of resistance of modified ELR material 1060 as a function of temperature (in K). For test results 2600, modifying material 1380 corresponds to bismuth and ELR material 360 corresponds to YBCO. Test results 2600 were produced over 5 test runs using a 400 nA current source, a 1024-point FFT was performed, and information from all but the lowest 12 frequencies were eliminated. Test results 2600 demonstrate that various portions of modified ELR material 1060 operate in an ELR state at higher temperatures relative to ELR material 360. Test results 2600 include various discrete steps 2610 in the resistance versus temperature plot, similar to those discussed above with regard to FIGS. 16A-16G. Test results 2600 indicate that: certain apertures 310 within modified ELR material 1060 propagate electrical charge at approximately 262K; certain apertures 310 within modified ELR material 1060 propagate electrical charge at approximately 235K; certain apertures 310 within modified ELR material 1060 propagate electrical charge at approximately 200K; certain apertures 310 within modified ELR material 1060 propagate electrical charge at approximately 172K; and certain apertures 310 within modified ELR material 1060 propagate electrical charge at approximately 141 K. Certain apertures 310 within modified ELR material 1060 may propagate electrical charge at other temperatures.
  • [0167]
    FIG. 27 illustrates test results 2700 include a plot of resistance of modified ELR material 1060 as a function of temperature (in K). For test results 2700, modifying material 1380 corresponds to copper and ELR material 360 corresponds to YBCO. Test results 2500 were produced over 6 test runs using a 200 nA current source, a 1024-point FFT was performed, and information from all but the lowest 12 frequencies were eliminated. Test results 2700 demonstrate that various portions of modified ELR material 1060 operate in an ELR state at higher temperatures relative to ELR material 360. Test results 2700 include various discrete steps 2710 in the resistance versus temperature plot, similar to those discussed above with regard to FIGS. 16A-16G. Test results 2700 indicate that: certain apertures 310 within modified ELR material 1060 propagate electrical charge at approximately 268K; certain apertures 310 within modified ELR material 1060 propagate electrical charge at approximately 256K; certain apertures 310 within modified ELR material 1060 propagate electrical charge at approximately 247K; certain apertures 310 within modified ELR material 1060 propagate electrical charge at approximately 235K; and certain apertures 310 within modified ELR material 1060 propagate electrical charge at approximately 223K. Certain apertures 310 within modified ELR material 1060 may propagate electrical charge at other temperatures.
  • [0168]
    FIG. 28 illustrates test results 2800 include a plot of resistance of modified ELR material 1060 as a function of temperature (in K). For test results 2800, modifying material 1380 corresponds to cobalt and ELR material 360 corresponds to YBCO. Test results 2500 were produced over 11 test runs using a 400 nA current source, a 1024-point FFT was performed, and information from all but the lowest 12 frequencies were eliminated. Test results 2800 demonstrate that various portions of modified ELR material 1060 operate in an ELR state at higher temperatures relative to ELR material 360. Test results 2800 include various discrete steps 2810 in the resistance versus temperature plot, similar to those discussed above with regard to FIGS. 16A-16G. Test results 2800 indicate that: certain apertures 310 within modified ELR material 1060 propagate electrical charge at approximately 265K; certain apertures 310 within modified ELR material 1060 propagate electrical charge at approximately 236K; certain apertures 310 within modified ELR material 1060 propagate electrical charge at approximately 205K; certain apertures 310 within modified ELR material 1060 propagate electrical charge at approximately 174K; and certain apertures 310 within modified ELR material 1060 propagate electrical charge at approximately 143K. Certain apertures 310 within modified ELR material 1060 may propagate electrical charge at other temperatures.
  • [0169]
    FIG. 29 illustrates test results 2900 include a plot of resistance of modified ELR material 1060 as a function of temperature (in K). For test results 2900, modifying material 1380 corresponds to titanium and ELR material 360 corresponds to YBCO. Test results 2500 were produced over 25 test runs using a 100 nA current source, a 512-point FFT was performed, and information from all but the lowest 11 frequencies were eliminated. Test results 2900 demonstrate that various portions of modified ELR material 1060 operate in an ELR state at higher temperatures relative to ELR material 360. Test results 2900 include various discrete steps 2910 in the resistance versus temperature plot, similar to those discussed above with regard to FIGS. 16A-16G. Test results 2900 indicate that: certain apertures 310 within modified ELR material 1060 propagate electrical charge at approximately 266K; certain apertures 310 within modified ELR material 1060 propagate electrical charge at approximately 242K; and certain apertures 310 within modified ELR material 1060 propagate electrical charge at approximately 217K. Certain apertures 310 within modified ELR material 1060 may propagate electrical charge at other temperatures.
  • [0170]
    In other experiments, modifying material 1020 was layered onto a surface of ELR material 360 substantially parallel to the c-plane of crystalline structure 300. These tests results (not otherwise illustrated) demonstrate that layering a surface of ELR material 360 parallel to the c-plane with modifying material 1020 did not produce any discrete steps such as those described above (e.g., discrete steps 1610). These test results indicate that modifying a surface of ELR material 360 that is perpendicular to a direction in which ELR material 360 does not (or tends to not) exhibit the resistance phenomenon does not improve the operating characteristics of the unmodified ELR material. In other words, modifying such surfaces of ELR material 360 may not maintain aperture 310. In accordance with various principles of the invention, modifying material should be layered with surfaces of the ELR material that are parallel to the direction in which ELR material does not (or tends to not) exhibit the resistance phenomenon. More particularly, and for example, with regard to ELR material 360 (illustrated in FIG. 3), modifying material 1020 should be bonded to an “a-c” face or a “b-c” face of crystalline structure 300 (both of which faces are parallel to the c-axis) in ELR material 360 (which tends not to exhibit the resistance phenomenon in the direction of the c-axis) in order to maintain aperture 310.
  • [0171]
    FIG. 20 illustrates an arrangement 2000 including alternating layers of ELR material 360 and a modifying material 1380 useful for propagating additional electrical charge according to various implementations of the invention. Such layers may be deposited onto one another using various deposition techniques. Various techniques may be used to improve alignment of crystalline structures 300 within layers of ELR material 360. Improved alignment of crystalline structures 300 may result in apertures 310 of increased length through crystalline structure 300 which in turn may provide for operation at higher temperatures and/or with increased charge propagating capacity. Arrangement 2000 provides increased numbers of apertures 310 within modified ELR material 1060 at each interface between adjacent layers of modifying material 1380 and ELR material 360. Increased numbers of apertures 310 may increase a charge propagating capacity of arrangement 2000.
  • [0172]
    In some implementations of the invention, any number of layers may be used. In some implementations of the invention, other ELR materials and/or other modifying materials may be used. In some implementations of the invention, additional layers of other material (e.g., insulators, conductors, or other materials) may be used between paired layers of ELR material 360 and modifying material 1380 to mitigate various effects (e.g., magnetic effects, migration of materials, or other effects) or to enhance the characteristics of the modified ELR material 1060 formed within such paired layers. In some implementations of the invention, not all layers are paired. In other words, arrangement 2000 may have one or more extra (i.e., unpaired) layers of ELR material 360 or one or more extra layers of modifying material 1380.
  • [0173]
    FIG. 23 illustrates additional of layers 2310 (illustrated as a layer 2310A, a layer 2310B, a layer 2310C, and a layer 2310D) of modified crystalline structure 1010 in modified ELR material 1060 according to various implementations of the invention. As illustrated, modified ELR material 1060 includes various apertures 310 (illustrated as an aperture 310A, an aperture 310B, and an aperture 310C) at different distances into material 1060 from modifying material 1020 that form bonds with atoms of crystalline structure 300 (of FIG. 3). Aperture 310A is nearest modifying material 1020, followed by aperture 310B, which in turn is followed by aperture 310C, etc. In accordance with various implementations of the invention, an impact of modifying material 1020 is greatest with respect to aperture 310A, followed by a lesser impact with respect to aperture 310B, which in turn is followed by a lesser impact with respect to aperture 310C, etc. According to some implementations of the invention, modifying material 1020 should better maintain aperture 310A than either aperture 310B or aperture 310C due to aperture 310A's proximity to modifying material 1020; likewise, modifying material 1020 should better maintain aperture 310B than aperture 310C due to aperture 310B's proximity to modifying material 1020, etc. According to some implementations of the invention, modifying material 1020 should better maintain the cross-section of aperture 310A than the cross-sections of either aperture 310B or aperture 310C due to aperture 310A's proximity to modifying material 1020; likewise, modifying material 1020 should better maintain the cross-section of aperture 310B than the cross-section of aperture 310C due to aperture 310B's proximity to modifying material 1020, etc. According to some implementations of the invention, modifying material 1020 should have a greater impact on a charge propagating capacity of aperture 310A at a particular temperature than on a charge propagating capacity of either aperture 310B or aperture 310C at that particular temperature due to aperture 310A's proximity to modifying material 1020; likewise, modifying material 1020 should have a greater impact on the charge propagating capacity of aperture 310B at a particular temperature than on the charge propagating capacity of aperture 310C at that particular temperature due to aperture 310B's proximity to modifying material 1020, etc. According to some implementations of the invention, modifying material 1020 should enhance the propagation of electrical charge through aperture 310A more than the propagation of electrical charge through either aperture 310B or aperture 310C due to aperture 310A's proximity to modifying material 1020; likewise, modifying material 1020 should enhance the propagation of electrical charge through aperture 310B more than the propagation of electrical charge through aperture 310C due to aperture 310B's proximity to modifying material 1020, etc.
  • [0174]
    Various test results described above, for example, test results 1600 of FIG. 16, among others, support these aspects of various implementations of the invention, i.e., generally, that the impact of modifying material 1020 on apertures 310 varies in relation to their proximity to one another. In particular, each discrete step 1610 in test results 1600 may correspond to a change in electrical charge carried by modified ELR material 1060 as those apertures 310 in a particular layer 2310 (or more appropriately, those apertures 310 formed between adjacent layers 2310 as illustrated) propagate electrical charge up to such apertures' 310 charge propagating capacity. Those apertures 310 in layers 2310 closer in proximity to modifying material 1020 correspond to discrete steps 1610 at higher temperatures whereas those apertures 310 in layers 2310 further from modifying material 1020 correspond to discrete steps 1610 at lower temperatures. Discrete steps 1610 are “discrete” in the sense that apertures 310 at a given relative distance to modifying material 1020 (i.e., apertures 310A between layers 2310A and 2310B) propagate electrical charge at a particular temperature and quickly reach their maximum charge propagating capacity. Another discrete step 1610 is reached when apertures 310 at an increased distance from modifying material 1020 (i.e., apertures 310B between layers 2310B and 2310C) propagate electrical charge at a lower temperature as a result of the increased distance and hence the lessened impact of modifying material 1020 on those apertures 310. Each discrete step 1610 corresponds to another set of apertures 310 beginning to carry electrical charge based on their distance from modifying material 1020. At some distance, however, modifying material 1020 may have insufficient impact on some apertures 310 to cause them to carry electrical charge at a higher temperature than they otherwise would; hence, such apertures 310 propagate electrical charge at a temperature consistent with that of ELR material 360.
  • [0175]
    In some implementations of the invention, a distance between modifying material 1020 and apertures 310 is reduced so as to increase impact of modifying material 1020 on more apertures 310. In effect, more apertures 310 should propagate electrical charge at discrete steps 1610 associated with higher temperatures. For example, in arrangement 2000 of FIG. 20 and in accordance with various implementations of the invention, layers of ELR material 360 may be made to be only a few unit cells thick in order to reduce the distance between apertures 310 in ELR material 360 and modifying material 1380. Reducing this distance should increase the number of apertures 310 impacted by modifying material 1380 at a given temperature. Reducing this distance also increases the number of alternating layers of ELR material 360 in a given overall thickness of arrangement 2000 thereby increasing an overall charge propagating capacity of arrangement 2000.
  • [0176]
    The flowcharts, illustrations, and block diagrams of the figures illustrate the architecture, functionality, and operation of possible implementations of methods and products according to various implementations of the invention. It should also be noted that, in some alternative implementations, the functions noted in the blocks may occur out of the order noted in the figures. For example, two blocks shown in succession may, in fact, be executed substantially concurrently, or the blocks may sometimes be executed in the reverse order, depending upon the functionality involved.
  • [0177]
    Furthermore, although the foregoing description is directed toward various implementations of the invention, it is noted that other variations and modifications will be apparent to those skilled in the art, and may be made without departing from the spirit or scope of the invention. Moreover, various features described in connection with one implementation of the invention may be used in conjunction or combination with various other features or other implementations described herein, even if not expressly stated above.
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Klassifizierungen
US-Klassifikation505/470, 252/521.4, 252/514, 427/58, 427/62, 252/500, 252/518.1, 252/512, 252/521.2, 252/513
Internationale KlassifikationB05D5/12, H01B1/02, H01B1/00, H01L39/24
UnternehmensklassifikationH01B12/14, H01B12/06, Y10T428/31678, H01L39/2464, H01L39/2419, H01L39/24, H01L39/126, H01L39/125, H01C7/00, H01B1/08, B05D1/36, H01L39/2487, H01L39/12
Europäische KlassifikationH01L39/12C2, H01L39/24J, H01L39/24, H01L39/12C, H01L39/12, H01L39/24K
Juristische Ereignisse
DatumCodeEreignisBeschreibung
21. Dez. 2010ASAssignment
Owner name: AMBATURE, LLC, CALIFORNIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:GILBERT, DOUGLAS J.;REEL/FRAME:025548/0098
Effective date: 20101216
8. Juni 2016ASAssignment
Owner name: AMBATURE, INC., ARIZONA
Free format text: CHANGE OF NAME;ASSIGNOR:AMBATURE, LLC;REEL/FRAME:038914/0951
Effective date: 20130502