US 3072518 A
Beschreibung (OCR-Text kann Fehler enthalten)
Jan. 8, 1963 G. 1..- WHITE METHOD OF FORMING MULTIPLE STRANDS FROM A SINGLE BUSHING 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed March 3, 1958 INVENTOR. 1
fia efdwq ae ATTORNEYS Jan. 8, 1963 G. L. WHITE 3,
METHOD OF FORMING MULTIPLE STRANDS FROM A SINGLE BUSHING Filed March 5, 1958 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR.
A TTORNE YS' United States Patent 3,072,518 NIETHOD 0F FORMING MULTIPLE STRANDS FROM A SINGLE BUSHING Gerald L. White, Whitehouse, Ohio, assignor, by mesne assignments, to Johns-Manville Fiber Glass Inc., Cleveland, Ohio, a corporation of Delaware Filed Mar. 3, 1958, Ser. No. 718,562 4 Claims. I (Cl. 156175) This invention relates broadly to a plural strand package and a method for forming same.
More specifically, it relates to a plural strand package wherein the strands are comprised of a multiplicity of filaments drawn from a single body of glass, and to a method for winding the strands into a package which permits simultaneously unwinding the individual strands.
Still further, this invention relates to a strand unit consisting of a plurality of separably joined smaller strands and to a method for its production.
The superior qualities of glass strand as a reinforcing material for plastic laminates is recognized by those working in the art. Likewise, it has been recognized that reduction of the number of filaments per strand improves the surface of the laminate due to a reduction in girth of the bundle produced by chopping the strand into lengths.
This arises because the reduction of the diameter of a strand by 2 results in a decrease of a sectional area of the strand by 4. Thus the size of reinforcing strands made by the present process, being greatly reduced provides plastic laminates of smoother surface finish. More uniform fiber distribution is another result. Also, the strands, being smaller, are wetted out more completely by the resin than are larger strands.
The problem however has been to economically produce a package comprised of a plurality of glass strands, each strand having fewer filaments than produced by the bushing. The standard bushings have a capacity of 100 or 200 filaments whereas, as discussed above, it is more desirable for ultimate laminate production to utilize smaller strands, such as those comprised of 50 filaments. Though it is possible to provide bushings with 50 orifices, they would merely be an adjunct to existing standard bushings, and not economically justifiable as compared to standard bushings in view of the fact that they are made of a precious metal such as platinum or alloys thereof.
The subject invention provides a method for producing a plural strand package wherein each strand is comprised of an equal number of filaments.
It istherefore an important object of this invention to provide a method for producing a plural strand package wherein the strands are comprised of an equal number of filaments.
It is another important object of this invention to provide a method for producing a plural strand package wherein filaments from a single body of glass or integrally bonded into a plurality of individual strands.
It is another object, of this invention to provide a method for producing a plural strand package wherein the strands are simultaneously traversed upon a rotating support in a series of alternately progressive and regressive superposed bights advancing uni-directionally from one end of the support to the other.
It is a further object to provide a method for producing a plural strand package wherein the strands are wound upon a support in out of phase relation and wherein the strands are simultaneously traversed upon a rotating support in a series of alternately progressive and regressive superposed bights advancing uni-directionally from one end of the support to the other.
It is a still further object to provide a method for pro- "ice ducing a plural strand package wherein separably joined strands are wound upon a support in phased relation and wherein the strands are simultaneously traversed upon a rotating support in a series of alternately progressive and regressive superposed bights advancing uni-directionally from one end of the support to the other.
It is another object of this invention to provide a plural strand package wherein the individual strands may be unwound simultaneously.
It is still another object of this invention to provide a strand package comprised of a plurality of strands wound in out of phase relationship upon a support in a series of alternating progressive and regressive superposed bights advanced uni-directionally from one end of the support to the other.
It is another object of this invention to provide a strand package comprised of a plurality of strands wound in separably joined relationship upon a support in a series of alternately progressive and regressive superposed bights advanced uni-directionally from one end of the support to the other.
Other objects and advantages of the invention will become more apparent during the course of the following description, when taken in connection with the accompanying drawings.
In the drawings, wherein like numerals are employed to designate like parts throughout the same:
FIG. 1 is a diagrammatic elevation of apparatus for producing a plural strand package.
FIG. 2 is a phase diagram illustrating the short traverse of two srands upon a support.
FIG. 3 is a modified form of the apparatus of FIG. 1.
FIG. 4 is an enlarged sectional view of a strand.
FIG 5 is an enlarged sectional view of a separably joined strand as produced on the apparatus of FIG. 3.
FIG. 6 is a phase diagram illustrating the short traverseof two separably joined strands upon a support.
FIG. 7 is a diagrammatic view of the package illustrating the superposed position of the strands.
Referring to FIG. 1 of the drawings, the numeral 10 indicates a bushing within a thermally insulated enclosure 11. A plurality. of orifices, or openings 12, are formed in the horizontally disposed base 13 of the bushing.
As mentioned above the number of orifices will, for economic reasons, have a number of at least about 100, and may be as high as 200 or more. By so operating, it hasbeen found that the optimum number of orfiices per ounce of platinum is provided.
As previously recited, the bushing is generally made of platinum or alloys thereof, such as platinum-rhodium, and is charged from the top with a supply of glass. The platinum bushing 10 and the glass contained therein is customarily heated electrically to reduce the glass to a fluid state so that it will gravitate through the orifices 12 in small diameter streams '14 which are placed in tension by a later recited means to attenuate the streams of glass 14 into filaments 15 of fine diameter.
In accordance with the present invention the filaments 15 are divided manually into a plurality of groups, limited.
to two in the drawings for simplicity and indicated by the general numerals 16 and 17. However, it is evident that the filaments 15 may be divided into a greater number of groups without departing from the spirit of the invention.
Each of the groups of filaments 16 and 17 are respectively collected on pads 18 and 19 which have stationary supports 20 and '21. A binder solution 22 issues from nozzles 23 and 24 to saturate each of the pads. The wiping action of the strands 25 and 26, as each strand passes over its respective pad, causes the binder solution 3 to penetrate the strand and bond the filaments together. One of the commoner types of binder solution is dissolved in water which dissipates rapidly so that the residual binder effectively adhesively joins the filaments of each group into a strand.
A pair of guide eyes 27 and 28 respectively direct the strands and 26 in spaced relation to a winding traversing mechanism 29. The mechanism 29 is disclosed in the application of Richard A. Pim et al. for Hydraulic Winding Traverser, Serial No. 439,332, filed June 25, 1954, now Patent No. 2,905,403.
The apparatus disclosed in the Pim application includes a mandrel 30 mounted on the output shaft 31 of a motor 32. The mandrel 30 may be of any type which permits replacement of support members 33 upon which the strands 25 and 26 are simultaneously wound into a package 34. The support, such as a tube, is rapidly rotated by the motor 32 and thus provides the attenuating force for pulling the streams of glass 14 into filament form, as mentioned above. The traversing mechanism 35 directing the strands 25 and 26 upon the support 33 includes a motor 36 mounted above and to the rear of the support (FIG. 1) in a plane substantially normal to the periphery of the support.
A cam 37 is mounted for rotation upon the horizontally disposed output shaft 38 of the motor 36. It is preferred to rotate the output shafts 31 and 38 of motors 32 and 36 in a clockwise direction as viewed from the shaft end and as respectively indicated by the arrows 39 and 40 of FIG. 1. In addition, the arrow 41 indicates the direction of the continuous slow motion of the mechanism 35 as the strands 25 and 26 are traversed upon the support member 33. The arrow 42 indicates the rapid return of the mechanism for initiating the traversing of the strands on a successive support member.
The cam 37 is in the form of a hollow cylinder with an exposed face 43 concentric with the output shaft 38 of motor 36. The face 43 of the cam has a plurality of V-shaped indentations 44 spaced radially at regular intervals to form a like number of projecting fingers 45.
As clearly shown in FIG. 1, the guide eyes 27 and 28 are vertically displaced above the face 43 of the cam 37 and are horizontally displaced from each other so that the strands 25 and 26 are at all times biased against the face 43 of the cam in spaced relation. Thus, as the cam 37 is revolved by the motor 36, the strands 25 and 26 are rapidly traversed in out of phase relation over progressively advancing incremental portions of the length of the support member 33. Though the cam 37 is shown as having four fingers 45, it is obvious that varying the number of fingers is a ready expedient for varying the frequency within the cam cycle. Likewise, varying the depth of the V-sha'ped indentations alters the amplitude of the rapid traverse.
FIG. 2 diagrammatically illustrates the out of phase relation of the strands 25 and 26 on the package with the peaks 46 corresponding to the base of the indentations 44- of the cam 37 and the peaks 47 corresponding to the tips of the fingers of the cam. The diagram shows the strands 25 and 26 crossing midway between the indentations. However, there is no contact between the strands on the cam. This can readily be realized by referring to FIG. I and in which the strands 25 and 26 'are'contacted by the lowermost finger 45 and as the cam rotates in the clockwise direction shown the strand 26 leads the strand '25 so that before strand 25 arrives at the mid-point of the lowermost finger 45 the strand 26 will slide over the tip of the finger and be engaged by the following finger.
The type of package wound by the apparatus shown in FIG. 1 is illustrated in FIG. 7, wherein phantom lines are employed to designate strand 26 while continuous lines are employed to designate strand 25. As may be observed, the strands 25 and 26 are Wound ill Superposing relation, which relation deters adhering of the bights and thus facilitates unwinding of the strands.
Summarizing the method and product resulting, a multitude of filaments are drawn from a single source, collected into a plurality of strands, a binder solution is applied to each strand to integrate the same, and thereafter the strands are simultaneously wound upon a support member in out of phase relation under the guidance of a rapid stroke reciprocated traverse superimposed upon a slow stroke uni-directional traverse. Thus, portions of the length of the package are progressively wound to their full depth and completion of the slow stroke completes the package.
A modified form of the invention is shown in FIGS. 3 through 6 and in which parts identical to corresponding parts of FIG. 1 have corresponding reference numerals.
The apparatus is modified in one respect only, in that a single guide eye 48 replaces the plurality of guide eyes 27 and 28. In this modified form the distance between the binder applicator pads 18 and 19 and the guide eye 48 is such that the strands 25 and 26 are integrally bonded as they approach the guide eye 48, but the binder isstill a bit tacky. Thus, as the integrated strands 25 and 26 are brought into axially aligned contact by the guide eye 48, they are lightly, though separably, bonded along the line of contact 49 (FIGS. 5 and 6) into a plied strand.
Since the strands 25 and 26 are lightly joined into a plied strand 50 prior to entry into the fingers 45 of the rapid traverse cam 37, the strand 50 will wind upon the support member 33 as a unit in which the separable strands 25 and 26 are in contacting juxtaposition. Upon unwinding the package, the strands 25 and 26 may readily be separated or may be left in their joined form. This method of producing a plural strand package retains all the advantages of the first embodiment disclosed herein and in addition simplifies finding the ends for unwinding the package.
While the present invention has been illustrated as appliacable to the winding of two individual strands from a single group of a multiplicity of filaments, it is to be understood that more than two strands can be formed from a single source of filaments in accordance with the present method.
Further, the number of filaments in the individual strands may be the same or different. Thus, when desired, a group of I00 filaments can be divided into two strands consisting of 50 filaments each. Similarly a group of 200 filaments can be divided into four strands consisting of 50 filaments each.
However, if desired, the individual strands may contain differing numbers of filaments. For example, employing a source producing v filaments, a 60 filament strand and a 40 filament strand can be formed. Also, any other desired grouping can be made to produce strands having different numbers of filaments.
It will be obvious that, instead of using one source consisting of a multiplicity of filaments, more than one source of filaments can be employed. For example, where it is desired to produce two SO-filament strands, two individual sources of 50 filaments each can be used and the strands formed therefrom can be wound onto a single package in accordance with the present invention, after formation by collection of the individual filaments and application of a size thereto to form the strands.
In general, the smaller the number of glass filaments per strand the more perfect is the synthetic resin laminate made therefrom. The smaller glass strands are wetted more effectively by the liquid resin during the forming stage. Also, the smaller strands can be forced into corners of moldings too small to accept larger strands, and thus resin-rich areas in the finished laminate are avoided. The smaller strands also, by their superior wettability, provide improved surface smoothness in the finished laminates.
Although the present invention has been described with respect to the production of a plurality of strands from a source of a multiplicity of filaments of glass, it will be understood that the present method is applicable to the winding of continuous filaments made from any fiexible material, which when in continuous fiament form is adapted to be wound as a package in the manner of glass filaments. For example, the method of invention is applicable to the winding of continuous filaments made of flexible synthetic resins, either of the thermoplastic or thermo-setting types. The thermoplastic resins include rayon, cellulose acetate, cellulose nitrate, polyvinyl chloride and the like. The thermosetting resins includes phenol-formaldehyde, melamine-formaldehyde, ureatormalhyde, and polyesters, alkyds, epoxies and the like. The invention is also applicable to the production of multi-strand packages from vegetable fibers which can be carded and spun into continuous filaments for subsequent processing. 1
It has been mentioned in this specification that a sizing material is appliedto the filaments at the point where they are gathered into a strand. The primary purpose of the size is to bind the filaments together into a coherent strand. Additionally, when used with glass filaments, the sizing agent should contain a lubricant to reduce interabrasion between the fibers.
Any of the well-known sizes for glass fibers can be used in the present process. For example an aqueous starch suspension having a suitable lubricating oil as a component thereof in emulsified state, can be utilized as a size. The silicone resin-containing sizes will be preferred where the strands produced by the process are to be employed in the production of synthetic resin laminates such as those made from the polyester resins.
. In the case of filaments other than glass, sizes which are compatible therewith will, of course", be employed The purpose of the size is, through the adhesives such as starch contained therein, to bind the filaments together into a coherent strand which can be manipulated such as by winding, as upon or into a package as described herein. As mentioned above, for the case of glass filaments, the size contains a lubricant, in addition to the adhesive, to reduce the abrasiveness which glass filaments display for each other.
The size is selected and provided in a type and in an amount such that it will substantially instantaneously react with and join the fibers of a strand into a coherent unit. By so operating, the strand is firmly bonded as such and additionally adjacent strands will have only a mild tendency to adhere to each other. This permits strands to be joined as a pair, or the like, in adjacent side by side relation and yet the strands of the various turns on the package are only very lightly adhered, if at all, at their points of intersecting contact. Thus the strand, as a single or multiple'unit, can be readily removed from the package as desired for subsequent processing.
Water will usually be employed when possible for the vehicle of the size due to economic consideration. However, other vehicles such as volatile solvents will be utilized where required for compatability with the binding agent of the size composition. When operating with the latter materials, it will of course be desirable to safeguard against the fire hazard provided by such materials.
' herewith shown and described are to be taken as illustrative embodiments only of the same, and that various changes in the shape, size and arrangement of parts, as well as various procedural changes may be resorted to without departing from the spirit of the invention or the scope of the subjoined claims.
1. The method of forming a package of a plurality of continuous strands including the steps of: providing a multiplicity of continuous filaments from a source; dividing said filaments into a plurality of groups, with each group comprising a plurality of filaments; concurrently collecting said filaments or" each group into a strand and applying a liquid binder thereto; progressively advancing said strands along spaced apart paths to a rotating tube; and subjecting said strands as they advance along said paths to a cam body rotating about a cam body axis parallel to the rotating axis of said tube to alternately shift and superpose said strands within the amplitude of the shifting movement.
2. The method as defined in claim 1 wherein said strands are traversedon said revoluble member in out of phase relation.
3. The method of forming a package of a plurality of continuous strands including the steps of: providing a multiplicity of continuous filaments from a source; dividing said filaments into a plurality of groups, with each group comprising a plurality of filaments; concurrently collecting said filaments of each group into a strand and applying a liquid binder thereto; progressively advancing said strands to a rotating tube and subjecting said strands as they advance to said tube to a fast alternately shifting traversing action and a uni-directional traversing action to define a series of superposed bights advancing uni-directionally from one end of said tube to the other.
4. The method as described in claim 3 wherein said strands are advanced from the collection points to a guide, the strands are further progressively advanced in aligned and joined contact with each other to the rotating tube, and the strands are subjected to the traversing actions while aligned and in joined contact.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 533,934 Wardwell Feb. 12, 1895 1,966,507 Langstreth July 17, 1934 2,272,588 Simison Feb. 10, 1942 2,300,736 Slayter et a1 Nov. 3, 1942 2,325,127 Gladding July 27, 1943 2,345,538 Lewis Mar. 28, 1944 2,386,158 Collins Oct. 2, 1945 2,634,922 'Faylor Apr. 14, 1953 2,767,519 Bjorksten Oct. 23, 1956 2,851,732 Sharp Sept. 16, 1958 2,875,503 Frickert Mar. 3, 1959 2,905,403 Pim et al. Sept. 22, 1959