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METHOD FOR THE DISTRIBUTION OF
AUDIO-VISUAL INFORMATION AND A
SYSTEM FOR THE DISTRIBUTION OF
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
 This invention relates to a method for the distribution of audio-visual information and a system for the distribution of audio-visual information.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
 In the prior art, devices are known that permit a user having a terminal and a connection to a server of audio-visual information to download pieces of music in order to listen to them in real time or to store them in data storage means, either connected to the terminal, or transportable so as to be able to play them back or duplicate the pieces of music an unlimited number of times. However, most of these devices do not permit the calculation of royalties due to those having rights to the pieces of music since none of these devices enable the use made of the piece of music to be verified.
OBJECT AND SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
 Hence, this invention has the objective of remedying the disadvantages of the prior art by proposing a method of distributing audio-visual information enabling one to identify and to calculate the rights of reproduction of the audio-visual information distributed.
 This first objective is achieved by a method for the distribution of audio-visual information between a server and at least one terminal connected by bi-directional means of communication to the server characterized in that it comprises:
 a step of registering each terminal at the server to
identify the terminal in a unique way and to record the
type of terminal,  a step of authenticating the terminal by the server
on the occasion of each connection of the terminal to the
 a step of downloading at least one selection of audio-visual information chosen by the user of the terminal during its connection to the server, the format in which the selections of audio-visual information are transmitted being such that the destination terminal can make use of them,  a step of storing the use made of each selection of audio-visual information in a data base of the server.  In another embodiment, the use of a selection of audio-visual information comprises, either the running in real time of the audio-visual information on the destination terminal, or the storing of the audio-visual information for the purpose of running it on the destination terminal, or the running, in real time, of the audio-visual information, after storing the audio-visual information on the destination terminal.  In another embodiment, the authentication step includes a step of the terminal sending stored information relating to the desired uses to be made of the audio-visual information downloaded onto the terminal.  In another embodiment, the method includes a step in which the server processes information stored or received and relating to the uses for the audio-visual information downloaded onto the terminal in order to determine the
amount of royalties to be paid to each of the parties having rights over the audio-visual information.  In another embodiment, the registration step comprises a step of sending decoding and/or decryption means as a function of the format in which the audio-visual information will be transmitted to the terminal and which corresponds to the specified uses.
 In another embodiment, the type of terminal defines the use which will be made of the audio-visual information on the terminal.
 In another embodiment, the method comprises a step of paying for the selections commanded, either during the authentication step or during the choice of the user, or before the downloading step.
 In another embodiment, the method comprises a step of storing on the terminal statistical records concerning the use of the selections stored by the terminal and a step of sending, by the terminal, of information corresponding to the statistical records, during connection between the terminal and the server.
 A second aim of the invention consists of proposing a system for the distribution of audio-visual information which permits the calculation of the rights of reproduction of audio-visual information distributed.
 This second objective is achieved by a device for the distribution of audio-visual information comprising a server including mass data storage means that include audio-visual information for representing a plurality of musical and/or video selections, and at least one terminal including data storage means and a bi-directional communication link with the server, the device being characterized in that the data storage means of the server comprise an identification of each terminal defining the use of the audio-visual information transmitted to the terminal, each terminal comprising means interactive with the user to permit the choice of at least one selection through the communication link with the server and means of running the information sent by the server and representative of an audio-visual selection.  In another embodiment, the running means comprise means of running the audio-visual information sent by the server in real time, on the terminal.  In another embodiment, the running means comprise means of forbidding the re-use of the audio-visual information sent.
 In another embodiment, the running means of the terminal comprise means of storing the audio-visual information sent.
 In another embodiment, the terminal comprises means of recording information relating to the use made of the selections sent by the server to the terminal.  In another embodiment, the server includes means of calculating royalties to be paid to each of the parties having a right over the use of the selections sent to the terminals, from information recorded by the server and transmitted by each terminal and relating to the use of the selections.  In another embodiment, the exploitation means comprise a Digital Signal Processor DSP comprising means of decoding audio-visual information transmitted by the server in order to provide digital information, a digital-analog converter, at least one output for digital information to data storage means and command means for each digital output in order to authorize or not to authorize the storage of the digital information.
 It must be obvious to persons skilled in the art that this invention permits embodiments in numerous other specific forms without departing from the field of application of the invention as claimed. Consequently, these embodiments must be considered as being given for illustrative purposes and may be modified within the field defined by the scope of the attached claims.
 In another embodiment, the interactive comprising selection means including a pointer and or a touch screen associated with displays means for displaying at least one dialogue screen, and/or a vocal command system associated with audio reproduction means for restituting at least one vocal message.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS
 The invention, with its characteristics and advantages, will emerge more clearly on reading the description made making reference to the appended drawings in which:  FIG. 1 represents a simplified diagram of the device for the distribution of audio-visual information according to the invention;
 FIG. 2 represents the logic diagram of the operations
carried out during the communication between the server and
a terminal of the device for the distribution of audio-visual
information according to the invention;
 FIG. 3 represents a diagram of the terminal of the
device for the distribution of audio-visual information
according to the invention.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED
 Before describing the invention, it should be recalled in which context the broadcasting of audio-visual information is located. Firstly, by information or audio-visual selections, one must understand digital information or information arising from digitization that is representative of an artistic work. According to legislation currently in force in most countries, no sound reproduction or copy of an artistic work can be made without the agreement of the person or persons having rights to it, namely, in particular, its authors and/or composers and/or interpreters and/or promoters (recording company) and/or distributors. As a general rule, this or these agreement(s) is/are given in exchange for the payment of royalties.
 By way of example, we will describe in what follows, the scope and the contents of certain rights.  The rights to artistic audio-visual works are of several types and are a function in particular, of the use which is made of the, artistic work. In the case of a musical work, first of all there are rights linked to the sound reproduction of the work. Hence as soon as a musical work is reproduced, that is to say, as soon as it is played on a sound playback device, master rights are due to all or some of those having rights. When the musical work is copied, that is to say, information representative of the musical work is transferred onto another medium, then, for each copy of the work, mechanical rights are due to all or some of those having rights. Hence any downloading of a song from a memory of a server to another memory of a remote terminal constitutes a copy of an artistic work.
 When the artistic work consists of the association of still or moving images with sound, the reproduction of this work also gives rise to synchronization rights which can be
negotiated by mutual agreement by the legal representatives of those having rights and authorized to collect the royalties according to regulations which are predefined but may vary from one work to another.
 When an artistic audio-visual work is reproduced in public, it gives rise, in certain cases, to public performance rights, recognized in general by legal bodies who represent parties having rights and who are authorized to collect the royalties in accordance with regulations which are predefined but may vary from one work to another.  The rights which have just been mentioned are, by way of example. Other rights linked to the use of artistic audio-visual works can exist or arise. Similarly, the definition of the rights and particularly their conditions of application can change. However, whatever the type of right stemming from the use of an artistic work and whatever its application conditions, the method and the device according to the invention can be applied.
 As previously explained, the devices for the distribution of audio-visual information of the prior art did not provide means enabling one to determine the total amount to be paid to those having rights and did not exercise any controls whatsoever over the use of the audio-visual selections once they had been distributed. Consequently, the distribution of audio-visual information using these devices of the prior art is most of the time carried out regardless of the rights of third parties to the artistic works corresponding to the audiovisual information.
 This invention proposes to resolve this problem by providing a device and a method for the distribution of audiovisual information that enables one to take into account the payment of royalties and taxes to those having rights to an artistic work, when the work is commanded using a terminal connected to a server specialized in the distribution of artistic works in the form of audio-visual information through a communication network.
 One non-limitative embodiment of the invention will now be described making reference to FIGS. 1A and IB. The device described in what follows enables one to take into account rights linked to the sound reproduction and the rights linked to the copying of sound works in particular. However, by applying the same principles, it is possible to take into account all the rights linked to any sort of use of an audiovisual work.
 The distribution device according to the invention comprises a server 2 for the distribution of audio-visual information connected by a bi-directional communication link 3 to at least one remote terminal 1. FIG. 1 only shows a single terminal. However, the server 2 according to the invention can be connected in a simultaneous fashion and through links of various types to several terminals 1.
 The server 2 includes a module 20 for the management of communication with the terminals 1. This module 20 can include different sub-modules so as to take into account the different possible types of communications' links. Hence, a first sub-module comprises a communication interface that permits linkage to an ISDN or Integrated Services Digital Network. A second sub-module comprises a communication interface that allows connection to a communication link of the satellite type. A third sub-module comprises a communication interface that permits linkage to a communication link of the telephonic type, particularly a traditional wire connection or an ADSL or cellular type of link. A fourth sub-module comprises a communication interface that permits linkage to
a communication link of the television cable network type. The communication management module comprises transcription means so that, on the one hand, in the server terminal communication direction A, it transcribes the information coming from the server into the format suited to the type of linkage 3, and, on the other hand, in the terminal server communication direction B, it transcribes the information coming from the terminal into the format suited to the type of linkage 3. The communication management module 20 comprises means of analyzing signals received from the terminals 1 in order to extract from these signals, requests from the terminals or responses from the terminals 1 to the requests from the server 2. Finally, the communication management module 20 comprises means of transmitting requests or the responses to the relevant module of the server.  The communication between the different modules of the server 2 is created using a bi-directional bus 25 known of itself.
 A first module 21, called an authentication module comprises, for example, in a data base 210, a piece of information representative of an identification of all the terminals 1 liable to establish a connection with the server 2. The authentication module 21 comprises means of updating the data base 210 so that each time a user wishes a new terminal to be able to connect to the server 2, a new identification is assigned to this new terminal 1. This updating is carried out, for example, using a registration procedure. This registration procedure has the purpose, on the one hand, of assigning an identifier and, for example, a pass word unique to each terminal. Similarly, this procedure specifies the use to be made of the information which will be transmitted subsequently to the server 2. In effect, there are several ways of using the audio-visual information transmitted by the server 2. In a first case, the terminal 1 can be used to listen to a musical selection commanded to the server 2, in real time. In a second case, the terminal 1 can be used to store a musical selection commanded to the server 2 in order to be replayed an unlimited number of times. Hence, in the first case, a single royalty for a single broadcast is due to those having rights. Within the second case, there are two possible situations. In a first situation, on the one hand, a royalty for copying the work must be calculated and paid and on the other hand a royalty for each sound playback of the selection must be calculated and paid. In a second situation, payment for storage of the data and its unlimited use is made as a one-off payment by the user. This situation is very similar to the purchase of songs on traditional media such as an audio CD or a cassette. In this case, the royalties can also be calculated as a one-off payment for each downloading. Hence it can be understood that the management of these uses is necessarily different since these uses give rise to royalty payments calculated in a different way. This difference in calculation resides not only in the rate applied but also in the number of times that this rate must be applied.
 Hence, at the time of registration, a code or a unique key, for example, unknown to the user is assigned to the terminal to determine the use or uses which may be made of the audio-visual information sent by the server 2 to the terminal 1. This code or this unique key is associated with the identifier and to the pass word of the terminal. By use, one must understand all the uses that can be envisaged for a piece of audio-visual information, namely reproduction in a private or public context, copying and reproduction on demand or in a random fashion of a selection list.
 The authentication module 21 also includes means of managing the connection of each terminal 1 registered with the server 2. These management means will be described later making reference to FIG. 2.
 The server 2 includes a second module 22 called the graphic interface. This interface module 22 comprises means of sending dialogue screens to the terminals having established a connection with the server. In another embodiment variation, the dialogue screens may be complemented or replaced by vocal messages. The dialogue screens and/or the vocal messages are sent by the communications management module 21 to the terminals having established a connection with the server 2, to display on terminal 1 display means 122, screens that include selection windows, menus or any other dialogue box to guide the user in his selection command or commands and, for example, to permit the terminal 1 authentication procedure to take place when connection is made with the server 1. The graphic interface module 22 comprises means of processing either requests for a selection from the terminal 1 during the selection procedure, or requests from the authentication module 21 during the authentication procedure for the terminal 1. In effect, during the authentication procedure, the authentication module 21 must ask the terminal 1 to identify itself so as to authorize access of the terminal to the server. This request is carried out by means of a request sent by the authentication module 21 to the terminal 1 through the communications management module 20. The request includes asking for the identifier and the pass word of the terminal in order to verify that the terminal which is attempting to make the connection is properly registered, that is to say that its identifier and its pass word are correctly contained in the data base 210. This request is sent to the terminal 1 by means of a particular screen generated by the graphic interface module 22 which is then activated by the authentication module 21 so as to transmit the corresponding authentication screen to the terminal 1. In another variant, the authentication module 21 may include a sub-module generating this screen and can transmit it to the communication management module 20 for sending to the terminal 1.
 The server 2 includes a third module constituting a selection library 23 of audio-visual items. This library collects together notably all the selections available for downloading to the terminals 1. The selection library 23 may also include selections which are not yet available for downloading. This case arises when the selections concerned have not been made the subject of an agreement for their broadcasting or their copying. In effect, according to the invention, a selection is only made available to the terminals when the authorizations for reproduction or for copying have been obtained from all those having rights over that selection. Hence the selections can be stored in data base form and a flag system enables one to identify that a selection is available for downloading to the terminals. For each agreement with a party having rights over the broadcasting or the copying of a selection, a flag is used indicating if the agreement has been obtained. When all the flags indicate that all the agreements have been obtained then the selection is available for downloading. If, on the contrary, a single flag indicates that an agreement has not been obtained, then the selection is not available for downloading as long as the flag remains in the same state.
 The server 2 includes a fourth module 24 called the royalty calculation module. This module 24 comprises means of collecting information sent and received from each terminal 1 concerning the use which is made of the selections sent. The information collected is then stored on data storage means of the server. The royalty calculation module 24 also comprises, for example, in a data base, elements for calculating royalties as a function of the number of copies or broadcasts of each selection. These calculation elements are in particular, the royalty rates claimed for each party having rights for each use of the selection. Hence, for one and the same selection, the royalty rate for reproduction can be different to the royalty rate for copying which itself may be different to a one-off royalty for the copying of a selection with a view to its unlimited reproduction. Similarly, as previously explained, a royalty rate can be specified for every other right over the selection that exists. So as to carry out the calculation from these elements, the royalty calculation module 24 receives, for example, from the communications management module 20, information about the sending of selections to the terminals 1. As soon as a selection is transmitted to a terminal 1, the communications management module 20 notifies the collecting means of the royalty calculation module 24 by indicating to it if the selection is being sent for listening to in real time or for storage with a view to unlimited use with a one-off payment or for any other use giving rise to calculation of royalties. In effect, as previously explained, if the selection is simply listened to in real time, there is not, in relation to legislation currently in force, any change of medium and hence only reproduction rights are due. If, contrary to this, the selection is transmitted to a terminal 1 which is authorized to store the selections transmitted, then copying rights are due. In another example, if the selection is intended to be played in a public place, then performance rights are also due.
 Similarly, when each terminal 1 receives, for the purposes of storage, a selection sent by the server 2, during each connection to the server 2, information determines the number of times that the selection received on the terminal 1 has been played. When the management module 20 receives this information, it notifies it to the information collection means of the royalty calculation module 24 which can then carry out the exact calculation of the royalties to be paid for each of the parties having rights as a function of the calculation elements stored in the data base. In the case where the royalties for the storage and the playback are due in the form of a one-off payment, the information determining the number of times the selection received on the terminal 1 has been played is nevertheless requested and stored for information purposes as explained later.
 Each terminal 1 according to the invention is organized around a device 10 with a microprocessor. This device 10 includes a plurality of control circuits 11, 12, 13, 14 that permit management particularly of the communication with the server, the choice and the commanding of selections, listening to a selection in real time, the storage of selections and the restitution of the selections stored. A first control circuit 11 constitutes the communication interface with the communication link 3 with the server 2. This first control circuit 11 can be matched to a link that may be a telephone link, a satellite link or a cable link. The function of this first circuit 11 is substantially the same as that of the management module of the server, but on the terminal 1 side. In effect, the first control circuit 11 includes transcription means either to edit the data A arriving over the link 3 so that they are processed by the microprocessor device, or to edit the data B sent by the terminal 1 to the server 2.
 The second control circuit 12 comprises interface means between the user and the terminal 1. These interface means essentially comprise display means 122 and selection means 121. The display means 122 include, for example, a monitor or a liquid crystal screen. The selection means 121 comprise, for example, a pointer, such as a mouse, or a touch screen or a vocal command system or a radio-frequency or infra-red remote command device. These interface means permit the display of selection help screens generated by the graphic interface module 22 and then sent over the communication link 3. The selection means 121 allow the user to define and then validate his selection choices or to respond to requests from the server 2, for example, during the terminal 1 authentication procedure, this being done in manual fashion by a touch screen or keyboard or remotely, for example by voice.
 The third circuit 13 comprises restitution means for the selections. When the selections are musical pieces, the third circuit 13 is connected to a sound amplification device 130. An embodiment example of the third circuit 13 is shown in FIG. 3. According to this variant, the third circuit 13 is created around a signal processor designated below as DSP (Digital Signal Processor). The DSP receives the stream of audio-visual information corresponding to the selection on its input. This audio-visual information is digital data that has been compressed or encoded and possibly encrypted. According to the embodiment variation, the data are encoded in format MP3, then encrypted in a proprietary format MMP The MMP format data are firstly decrypted by a decrypting module, 1310 in FIG. 3, to provide a stream of digital data in MP3 format. This data flow is applied to the input of a decoding module 1311 that enables one to obtain, on its output, a flow of decompressed data in a standard digital format, such as WAV format. This data flow in WAV format is then applied to the input of a digital-analog converter 132 to be sent to the sound amplification device 130. The decrypting module 1310 and the module 1311 can be exclusively of the software type or the firmware type.
 As explained previously, a remotely loaded selection can be either played or stored in order to be replayed or may be played once in real time. In this latter case, the data flow must in no case be accessible to the user. In other words, the digital data must not be stored. Contrary to this, in the first case, the digital data can be stored. Hence the DSP includes at least one command 133.1,133.2,133.3 for access to storage means 140.1, 140.2, 140.3 of the terminal 1. This access command 133.1, 133.2, 133.3 allows or does not allow the transfer of the data flow in one of three formats MMP, MP3, WAV to an area 140.1,140.2,140.3 of the storage means 140 of the terminal 1. According to a first embodiment variant, each terminal is configured during the registration procedure on the server 2 for a specified use and one of the commands is validated to authorize the type of use provided for.  In a second embodiment, the terminal is upgradeable and its mode of use can be adapted when under way. In this case the server 2 sends information permitting validation for operation according to one of the three types of use defined above at the same time as the audio-visual information.
 In a final embodiment, when the use provided for on the terminal does not include the storage of transmitted audiovisual information, none of commands 133.1,133.2,133.3 is validated which prevents any storage of the audio-visual information on the data storage means of the terminal 1.