METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR
TRANSMITTING AND RECEIVING HIGH
SPEED DATA IN A CDMA
COMMUNICATION SYSTEM USING
MULTIPLE CARRIERS 5
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
I. Field of the Invention
The present invention relates to communications. More particularly, the present invention relates to a novel and 10 improved method and apparatus for maximizing system throughput and increasing signal diversity by dynamically multiplexing signals onto multiple carriers in a spread spectrum communication system.
II. Description of the Related Art
The present invention is concerned with transmitting data at rates which are higher than the maximum data rate of a single CDMA channel. A traditional CDMA channel (as standardized for cellular communication in the United 2Q States) is capable of carry digital data at a maximum rate of 9.6 bits per second using a 64 bit Walsh spreading function at 1.2288 MHz.
Many solutions to this problem have been proposed. One solution is to allocate multiple channels to the users and 25 allow those users to transmit and receive data in parallel on the plurality of channels available to them. Two methods for providing multiple CDMA channels for use by a single user are described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,005,855, entitled "METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR PROVIDING VARI- 30 ABLE RATE DATA IN A COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM USING STATISTICAL MULTIPLEXING", filed Apr. 28, 1997 and U.S. Pat. No. 5,777,990, entitled "METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR PROVIDING VARIABLE RATE DATA IN A COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM USING 35 NON-ORTHOGONAL OVERFLOW CHANNELS", filed Apr. 16,1997, both of which are assigned to the assignee of the present invention and are incorporated by reference herein. In addition, frequency diversity can be obtained by transmitting data over multiple spread spectrum channels 40 that are separated from one another in frequency. A method and apparatus for redundantly transmitting data over multiple CDMA channels is described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,166, 951, entitled "HIGH CAPACITY SPREAD SPECTRUM CHANNEL", which is incorporated by reference herein. 45
The use of code division multiple access (CDMA) modulation techniques is one of several techniques for facilitating communications in which a large number of system users are present. Other multiple access communication system techniques, such as time division multiple access (TDMA), 50 frequency division multiple access (FDMA) and AM modulation schemes such as amplitude companded single sideband (ACSSB) are known in the art. However, the spread spectrum modulation technique of CDMA has significant advantages over these other modulation techniques for mul- 55 tiple access communication systems.
The use of CDMA techniques in a multiple access communication system is disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,901,307, entitled "SPREAD SPECTRUM MULTIPLE ACCESS COMMUNICATION SYSTEM USING SATELLITE OR 60 TERRESTRIAL REPEATERS", assigned to the assignee of the present invention and incorporated by reference herein. The use of CDMA techniques in a multiple access communication system is further disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,103, 459, entitled "SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR GENERAT- 65 ING SIGNAL WAVEFORMS IN A CDMA CELLULAR TELEPHONE SYSTEM", assigned to the assignee of the
present invention and incorporated by reference herein. Code division multiple access communications systems have been standardized in the United States in Telecommunications Industry Association Interim Standard IS-95, entitled "Mobile Station-Base Station Compatibility Standard for Dual Mode Wideband Spread Spectrum Cellular System", which is incorporated by reference herein.
The CDMA waveform by its inherent nature of being a wideband signal offers a form of frequency diversity by spreading the signal energy over a wide bandwidth. Therefore, frequency selective fading affects only a small part of the CDMA signal bandwidth. Space or path diversity on the forward/reverse link is obtained by providing multiple signal paths through simultaneous links to/from a mobile user through two or more antennas, cell sectors or cell-sites. Furthermore, path diversity may be obtained by exploiting the multipath environment through spread spectrum processing by allowing a signal arriving with different propagation delays to be received and processed separately. Examples of the utilization of path diversity are illustrated in copending U.S. Pat. No. 5,101,501 entitled "SOFT HANDOFF IN A CDMA CELLULAR TELEPHONE SYSTEM", and U.S. Pat. No. 5,109,390 entitled "DIVERSITY RECEIVER IN A CDMA CELLULAR TELEPHONE SYSTEM", both assigned to the assignee of the present invention and incorporated by reference herein.
FIG. 1 illustrates a transmission scheme for a multiplecarrier code division multiple access (CDMA) system in which each carrier carries a fixed fraction of the transmitted data. Variable rate frame of information bits are provided to encoder 2 which encodes the bits in accordance with a convolutional encoding format. The encoded symbols are provided to symbol repetition means 4. Symbol repetition means 4 repeats the encoded symbols so as to provide a fixed rate of symbols out of symbol repetition means 4, regardless of the rate of the information bits.
The repeated symbols are provided to block interleaver 6 rearranges the sequence in which the symbols are to be transmitted. The interleaving process, coupled with the forward error correction, provides time diversity which aids in the reception and error recovery of the transmitted signal in the face of burst errors. The interleaved symbols are provided to data scrambler 12. Data scrambler 12 multiplies each interleaved symbol by (+1 or -1) according to a pseudonoise (PN) sequence. The pseudonoise sequence is provided by passing a long PN sequence generated by long code generator 8 at the chip rate through decimator 10 which selectively provides a subset of the chips of the long code sequence at the rate of the interleaved symbol stream.
The data from data scrambler 12 is provided to demultiplexer (DEMUX) 14. Demultiplexer 14 divides the data stream into three equal sub-streams. The first sub-stream is provided to transmission subsystem 15a, the second substream to transmission subsystem 15fc and the third substream to transmission subsystem 15c. The subframes are provided to serial-to-parallel converters (BINARY TO 4 LEVEL) 16a-16c. The outputs of serial to parallel converters 16a-16c are quaternary symbols (2bits/symbol) to be transmitted in a QPSK modulation format
The signals from serial-to-parallel converters 16a-16c are provided to Walsh coders 18a-18c. In Walsh coders 18a-18c, the signals from converters 16a-16c is multiplied by a Walsh sequence consisting of dl values. The Walsh coded data is provided to QPSK spreaders 20a-20c, which spread the data in accordance with two short PN sequences. The short PN sequence spread signals are provided to